Vol.35 No.3 JAN‑MAR 2007

2006 season sets cargo records n Success at Toledo n Ballast-free ships n Passenger cruising grows V O L U M E 3 5 N U M B E R 3 G LGREAT LAKER J A N U A R Y – M A R C H 2 0 0 7 The Interlake Steamship Company Interlake Corporate Center 4199 Kinross Lake Parkway Richfield, Ohio 44286 Telephone: (330) 659-1400 FAX: (330) 659-1445 ISO Certified E-mail: sales@interlake-steamship.com Precious Cargo? WE CAN HANDLE IT! At Interlake Steamship we treat each and every shipment as if it were priceless. Whether it’s coal, grain, taconite pellets or limestone we know how important that cargo is to our customers… and to their customers. And, we know how important it is that it be delivered in a timely manner with the utmost care. With self-unloading vessel capacities ranging from 17,000 to 68,000 tons, you can trust Interlake Steamship with all your dry bulk cargo needs on the Great Lakes. Call Interlake Steamship – where all cargo is precious cargo. GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 1 A R T I C L E S The international transportation magazine of J A N U A R Y – M A R C H 2 0 0 7 Midcontinent North America GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW GREAT LAKER 221 Water Street Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA (800) 491-1760 FAX: (866) 906-3392 harbor@harborhouse.com www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com www.greatlaker.com A searchable editorial archive is available at www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com D E P A R T M E N T S Dateline: Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Guest Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Lake Carriers’ Association Viewpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 The Administrator’s Outlook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Naval Architecture & Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Regional Shipyard Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Ports and shippers tallied impressive tonnage numbers in 2006. Page 7. New momentum, new ventures at the Port of Toledo. Page 40. Lee A. Tregurtha is repowered, modernized. Page 64. The 2006 Season 48TH NAVIGATION SEASON SETS RECORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Cargo up nearly 9 percent over 2005. Short Sea Shipping MODERN TONNAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 New feeder lines target short-distance cargo employing European methods. Ballast Water Management BALLAST-FREE SHIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Investigations at the University of Michigan use local water for ballast. Dedging ESTABLISHING ONE VOICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Industry repositions to increase advocacy for dredging dollars. Passenger Cruising CRUISE ON IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Lakes attract more cruise business. Port Profile: Toledo SEEING THE PIECES COME TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Port of Toledo sees success from its greatest challenges. Interview: Jim Hartung SPINNING PLATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Jim Hartung keeps cargo, people moving in Toledo. Lakers CONVERTED, MODERNIZED, REPOWERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Re-powering Interlake’s decorated veteran Lee A. Tregurtha. Boatwatching ROOM WITH A VIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Port Huron Maritime Center offers a cozy place for freighter-watchers. Marine Photography PORT WASHINGTON 1860 LIGHT STATION . . . . . . . . . 68 A glimpse into the past. Lighthouses LAKES’ LIGHTHOUSES EARN DOOMSDAY STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Some lights are threatened with disrepair and vandalism. Lighthouses SOUTH BASS ISLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 A lighthouse with an education. Meet the Fleet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 On the Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Laker Library Reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Laker Lighthouse News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Meet the Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 G LGREAT LAKER 2 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com P U B L I S H E D F O R 3 7 Y E A R S Business and Editorial Office 221 Water Street Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA (231) 582-2814 (800) 491-1760 FAX: (866) 906-3392 harbor@harborhouse.com www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com www.greatlaker.com EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS STAFF Jacques LesStrang Publisher Emeritus Michelle Cortright Publisher Janenne Irene Pung Editor Rebecca Harris Art Director Lisa Liebgott Production Manager Tina Burch Business Manager David L. Knight Editorial Consultant Roger LeLievre Great Laker Editor Virginia Forrand Circulation Manager ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT Kathy Booth Account Manager James Fish Director of Sales William W. Wellman Senior Account Manager EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD John D. Baker, President, Great Lakes District Council, International Longshoremen’s Association; Gary L. Failor, Executive Director, Cleveland-Cuyahoga Co. Port Authority; James H. Hartung, President, Toledo-Lucas Co. Port Authority; Davis Helberg, Executive Director, Seaway Port Authority of Duluth – Retired; Anthony G. Ianello, Executive Director, Illinois International Port District; Peter Kakela, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, Michigan State University; Donald N. Morrison, President, Canadian Shipowners Assn.; Rep. James L. Oberstar, Member of Congress, Chair, House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee; John J. Peacock, Executive Vice-President, Fednav Limited; George Ryan, President, Lake Carriers’ Association – Retired; Daniel L. Smith, National Vice President-Great Lakes, American Maritime Officers; Rep. Bart Stupak, Member of Con gress, Energy & Commerce Committee; James H.I. Weakley, President, Lake Carriers’ Association, James K. Welsch, Jr., President & CEO, American Steamship Company. SUBSCRIPTIONS -(800) 491-1760 or www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Published quarterly. One year $30.00; two years $50.00; three years $70.00. Foreign: One year $40.00; two years $65.00; three years $95.00. Payable in U.S. funds. Back issues available. Article reprints are also available. Reprints produced by others not authorized. ISSN 0037-0487 SRDS Classifications: 84, 115C, 148 Great Lakes/Seaway Review and Great Laker are published quarterly in March, June, September and December. Postmaster: Send address changes to Great Lakes/Seaway Review, Great Laker, 221 Water Street, Boyne City, MI 49712 USA. © 2007 Harbor House Publishers, Inc., Boyne City, Michigan. All rights reserved. No article or portion of same may be reproduced without written permission of publisher. JANUARY-MARCH, 2007 THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION MAGAZINE O F M I D C O N T I N E N T N O R T H A M E R I C A VOLUME 35 NUMBER 3 Great Lakes/Seaway Review Cover: The Federal Hunter at the Welland Canal. Photo by Pat Lapinski. Great Laker Cover: Repowered Interlake vessel Lee A. Tregurtha. Photo by Chris Winters. PORT OF Strategic transportation network and location Complete deep water port facilities 2544 Clinton St. P.O. Box 880 Buffalo, NY 14224 716-826-2890 716-826-1342 FAX info@portofbuffalo.com www.portofbuffalo.com Gateway Trade Center, Inc. Subsidiary of New Enterprise Stone & Lime Co., Inc. BUFFALO GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 3 G R E A T L A K E S / S T . L A W R E N C E S E A W A Y Oberstar named chairman Jim Oberstar (D-Minn.) has been selected chairman of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee for the 110th U.S. Congress. Oberstar has been the ranking Democrat on the committee since 1995 and is regarded as one of the top transportation experts in Congress. “I am pleased and humbled by this vote of confidence,” Oberstar said. “I look forward to the many challenges ahead for this committee and am ready to work with members on both sides of the aisle, and the administration, to move our agenda forward for the good of all the American people.” Oberstar assumed chairmanship in January and with the new Congress, he expects the shift in power to create important changes for marine transportation. . Filming for IMAX movie on Seaway System continues Wonders of the Great Lakes, a full-length IMAX film being produced by Science North, is scheduled for release in May 2008. The C$6.5 million film will showcase geography, ecology, science and history of the Great Lakes while also discussing the need for preservation, conservation and restoration. Shipping will be the “A” story line as the film follows a Fednav ship through the system over the course of a season. Fednav is the film’s title sponsor. Other sponsors include The St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, a number of ports and the Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute. Sponsors have input into the film’s content as part of the script advisory board. The film will provide the Seaway and Great Lakes ports with high profile exposure to a global audience in a medium capable of showing the size and scope of the inland waterway, as well as its importance to the economic and social vitality of North America, said Paul Glovas, project executive director for Science North. IMAX films can be shown in nearly 300 giant-screen theaters worldwide, with 50 located within the system’s Great Lakes states. “We expect Wonders of the Great Lakes to be shown as a first-run film in more than 100 theaters worldwide,” Glovas said, “with an initial audience exceeding five million. There are a number of key theaters that are likely to bring this film back for a second run, or keep it in their schedules for several years.” With ongoing showings expected to add about two million more viewers—plus exposure through the traveling museum exhibit, website and DVD sales—the system will gain a global audience as part of its 50th anniversary celebration. . Seaway Marine Transport appoints president The year at Seaway Marine Transport began with Allister Paterson accepting an appointment as president. He most recently served as president and chief executive officer of Air Canada Vacations and has 14 years experience in the transportation industry. He has broad functional experience in marketing, financing, corporate strategy and highly unionized operations. Paterson holds a bachelor’s degree in finance from Arizona State University and a master’s of business administration from the University of Western Ontario.. Allister Paterson Jim Oberstar Exceptional service recognized Anita Blackman (center), chief of staff for the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC), receives the Meritorious Achievement Award (Silver Medal) for her extraordinary effort in the advancement of the department’s diversity and human resources initiatives, which are part of the President’s Management Agenda. Presenting the award are (from left) Secretary Mary E. Peters and SLSDC Administrator Terry Johnson. The award is given by the Secretary in recognition of service for exceptional achievement that substantially contributed to the accomplishment of the department’s mission or major programs. DATELINE The Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Port Authority board of directors has appointed Adam Wasserman president and chief executive officer. Wasserman has more than 20 years of experience in economic development, including working with ports on development projects. He succeeds Gary Failor, who recently retired. Since 2004, Wasserman lived in Yorkshire, England and served as CEO of Hull Urban Regeneration (Citybuild), which was established by Parliament to stimulate investment in the port city of Hull and its surrounding district through economic growth, development and the creation of public infrastructure and assets. Previously he served as executive director of the Arlington (Virginia) Economic Development for seven years and held top economic development positions with the Central and South West Corporation, Baltimore County Economic Development Commission and New York City Public Development Corporation. He earned his graduate and undergraduate degrees from Arizona State University and a certification in international trade from Loyola College. . Adam Wasserman Port of Cleveland welcomes new top executive D A T E L I N E 4 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Southern Ontario Gateway Council launched Federal Transport Minister Lawrence Cannon and Ontario Transport Minister Donna Cansfield launched the Southern Ontario Gateway Council (SOGC) in December. The non-profit coalition is a collaboration of the transportation industry, government and key transport stakeholders. Its goal is to promote an integrated transportation system that will support growth of the southern Ontario economy over the next 15 years. Cannon and Cansfield will co-chair the council. “You can count on us as strong champions of this venture,” Cannon said, noting that one of the council’s great strengths is industry leadership. Members of the Ontario Marine Transportation Forum have been instrumental in working with elected officials in getting the council formed. Through the council, the federal government and the Province of Ontario have committed to working with the industry to examine transportation challenges and opportunities facing the region. “Efficient transportation gateways and corridors are essential to Canada’s international commerce and long-term prosperity,” he said. The Ontario Ministry of Transportation and the Government of Canada co-funded SOGC’s Strategic Plan and Economic Impact Study with the latter contributing C$107,000. The study concluded that the Southern Ontario Gateway generates C$33 billion in direct economic output with C$57 billion in spin-offs. The region is the biggest trade route between Canada and the United States, accounting for 27 percent of Canada’s gross domestic product. . Shipowners consider 25 percent duty a tax on Canadian shippers With Canadian shipbuilders unable to meet tonnage demands, Canadian shipowners are purchasing new vessels from powerhouses such as Japan, China, Korea, Norway and Germany. Vessels imported and registered in Canada are subject to an import duty of 25 percent on the value of the vessel, usually amounting to tens of millions of dollars. Because of this, shipowners view the duty as a tax on Canadian shippers. Canadian shipowners have recently requested that duty on newbuilds be phased-out over a period not exceeding three years, duty for importing second-hand vessels be eliminated entirely in 10 years and duty be maintained indefinitely for vessel repairs done offshore. The proposal would increase competitiveness for both carriers and cargo shippers by reducing the capital cost of vessels. In addition, the proposal would encourage the development of short sea shipping and lead to positive benefits for the environment. . Great Lakes Towing opens new headquarters On February 8, just five days after moving into the new space, The Great Lakes Towing Company held an open house for its new headquarters. The $3.5 million headquarters building and state-of-the-art shipyard complex was constructed on the company’s waterfront property in Cleveland, Ohio. The facilities incorporate new technology into fabrication, welding and diesel shops. The 40-foot tall fabrication building is equipped with a 10-ton overhead crane that will travel the length of the building. Its 30- by 40-foot hanger door permits indoor barge and tug construction and repairs. With completion of the office and fabrication buildings, and the construction of new dock bulkheading, additional plans call for installing a 500-ton travel lift to complement the company’s drydock and to permit simultaneous repair of multiple boats and barges, expanding its vessel repair and marina service capabilities. . 2201 Pinnacle Parkway • Twinsburg, OH 44087 330-963-6310 • FAX 330-963-6325 www.omnithruster.com D A T E L I N E GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 5 Freight forwarder turns 100 M.E. Dey & Co., Inc is celebrating a century in business. When the company was founded in 1907, Russia was governed by the Czar Nicholas and Iraq did not exist, Thailand was called Siam and the Chicago Cubs won their first World Series. The world has changed in countless ways, yet M.E. Dey—with offices in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Chicago, Illinois—is still a vibrant business. The company specializes in international freight forwarding as well as import, export, and trade and regulatory services. . Pilotage surcharge continues in ‘07 After instituting a two percent surcharge in 2006 on pilotage fees as a temporary measure to reduce reliance on external financing, the Great Lakes Pilotage Authority (GLPA) plans to continue the surcharge through 2007. The authority estimates that for 2007 it will need to raise approximately $1.4 million through the surcharge. . MARCH 1 SNAME – Great Lakes and Great River Section; Cleveland, Ohio Laura Alford, islavice@engin.umich.edu 6-7 Great Lakes Day, Washington, D.C. Jon MacDonagh-Dumler jonmacd@glc.org 11 43rd Great Lakes Memorial Service and Blessing of the Fleet Mariners Church, Detroit, Michigan (313) 259-2206 12-15 Seatrade Cruise Shipping Convention Miami Beach Convention Center Miami Beach, Florida (609) 759-4700 or www.cruiseshipping.net 19-20 American Association of Port Authorities Spring Conference Washington, D.C. www.aapa-ports.org 19-21 Shipping 2007 Conference Westin Hotel Stamford, Connecticut (888) 627-7154 or www.shipping2007.com APRIL 26 20th Annual Windsor Marine Night Cleary International Auditorium Windsor, Ontario Nancy Wiseman, (519) 258-5741 or wpa@portwindsor.com REGIONAL CALENDAR REGIONAL CALENDAR MAY 14-16 Great Lakes Commission Semiannual Meeting Radisson Hotel City Centre, Indianapolis, IN Tim Eder, (734) 971-9135 or teder@glc.org 28- International Association for Great Lakes June 1 Research (IAGLA) 2007 Conference University Park, Pennsylvania 07chairs@iagla.org 30- Mari-Tech 2007 Annual Conference June 1 & Trade Show The Sheraton Fallsview Niagara Falls, Ontario John Moriarty, (705) 730-9668 jmoriaty@sympatico.ca WHATEVER IT TAKES TO MEET YOUR COAL TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS • Coal Sourcing • Rail Transportation • Dock Services • Blending • Trucking • Vessel Transportation A DTE Energy Company For more information visit our website at www.midwestenergy.com or call 715.392.9807 Midwest Energy Resources Upper Lakes Group Inc. proudly celebrates 75 years of commitment to marine trade and transportation. From its inception in 1932 as a fledgling fleet of three vessels servicing Toronto Elevator, it has developed into a fully integrated marine transportation company. Through Seaway Marine Transport it is now a partner in the largest fleet on the Great Lakes. Our expanded range of services include ship building and repair, marine fueling, tanker services, grain trading, elevator operations and property holdings. Upper Lakes would like to thank our customers and our employees for their support over the past 75 years and as we look to the future together, we remain committed to offering our customers innovative and effective solutions to their transportation needs. AA TTrraaddiittiioonn ooff IInnnnoovvaattiioonn 48TH NAVIGATION SEASON SETS RECORD Cargo up nearly 9 percent over 2005 The Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway System was open for 283 days in 2006, surpassing the longest season—established in 2004—by two days. Ships flowed through the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes from March 23 to the December 30 closing of the Seaway locks at 12:50 a.m. with the Kathryn Spirit moving through the St. Lambert Lock. The Welland Canal section closed at 8:39 a.m. December 30, with the transit of the articulated tug barge Sea Eagle II. Mild winter conditions have enabled Lakes trade to continue well into the winter. T H E 2 0 0 6 S E A S O N GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 7 A press that was purchased from Ford Stamping Plant in Buffalo, New York is loaded at the Port of Buffalo. Centerpointe Corporate Park • 500 Essjay Road • Williamsville, NY 14221• 716-635-0222• ascinfo@gatx.com• www.americansteamship.com 100 years of experience – positioned for the next century Performance Based Service Oriented Customer Focused American Steamship Company GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 9 thousands of metric tons): • Grain – 11,538, up from 9,773 in 2005 • Iron Ore – 11,038, up from 11,010 • Coal – 3,714, up from 3,693 • Other Bulk, 16,284, up from 15,548 • General Cargo, 4,560, up from 3,259 Combined total transits for the Montreal/Lake Ontario and Welland Canal sections of the system were up by 252 over the year pervious, to 4,613. Continuing initiatives. With solid numbers on its side, the Seaway is forging ahead with a number of technological projects, including vessel self-spotting, a prototype of a hands-free mooring system that will be installed this winter and a walk-through procedure at the Iroquois Lock which will allow vessels to transit the facility without coming to a full stop. The hydraulic drive conversion program also continues as a key means of reinforcing the system’s 99.5 percent up-time record. T H E 2 0 0 6 S E A S O N The season ended with ports and shippers tallying impressive amounts of tonnage. According to the St. Lawrence Management Corporation (SLSMC), the year closed at about 47,165,000 metric tons, a 9 percent increase—four million metric tons—more than the 2005 season results. “This achievement bodes well for the future of our Seaway, as a strong performance within our traditional bulk and breakbulk staples was complemented by a series of new and diversified cargo movements,” said Richard Corfe, President and CEO of SLSMC. “Our market development efforts, centered on the Hwy H2O campaign, brought in over 500,000 (metric) tons of new cargo movements over the course of 2006, adding over C$1.2 million in incremental revenue to our top line,” Corfe said, noting that the results represent about a 100 percent increase over 2005 in the volume of new cargoes coming into the system. “Momentum is clearly on our side,” he said. Cargo totals—up in every category—for 2006 follow (shown in Port of Green Bay has received heavy electrical generation equipment, paper making machines and yankee dryers, amounting to 15,000 tons. Wind turbine blades were discharged from the Barvaria at the Port of Duluth-Superior. Sichem Singapore arrived in Hamilton on its’ maiden voyage. This “hydro cracker” reactor from Dubai, Japan, is the largest piece of heavy-lift project machinery to be handled at the Port of Duluth-Superior, weighing in at 805 tons. American Maritime Officers is a nationwide labor organization representing U.S. licensed merchant marine officers employed aboard U.S.-flagged commercial, government and military sealift vessels operating on the world’s oceans, in U.S. coastal waters, on the Great Lakes, on U.S. inland waterways, and in major harbors. AMO is committed to building and maintaining a strong, versatile American merchant marine, fully capable of meeting U.S. commercial and defense requirements. American Maritime Officers 2 West Dixie Highway Dania Beach, FL 33004 (954) 921-2221 One Maritime Plaza Toledo, Ohio 43604 (419) 255-3940 Thomas J. Bethel President Jose E. Leonard Secretary-Treasurer Daniel L. Smith Executive Vice President GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 11 “The technological initiatives that we are undertaking, backed by consistent investments in our employees, prepare us for a future where the Great Lakes/Seaway System—Hwy H2O—will play a key role as a complement to heavily congested road and rail links within the intermodal cargo network,” Corfe said, noting that the existing locks and channels can accommodate an increase of more than 60 percent in cargo volumes. On the environmental front, the SLSMC and the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC) are working in concert with marine stakeholders to advance ballast water treatment solutions, while, with its partners, implementing the most stringent ballast water inspection and shipboard management practices currently available. SLSDC Administrator Collister “Terry” Johnson, Jr., said that 2007 will be a pivotal year in addressing the ballast water challenge. “The SLSDC is planning to work closely with its U.S. and Canadian stakeholders, including the new U.S. Congress, to forge a practical solution to this important issue,” he said. Johnson also noted the significance of working together collaboratively with U.S.-Canadian counterparts in industry and government on the Green Marine Initiative. “Leaders of both Seaway Corporations sit on the Steering Committee of this important group that represents more than 500 maritime companies and, consistent with our “blue is green” theme, we want to deliver the message that moving more cargo volume via the marine mode provides a ready answer to increasing energy efficiency and lowering greenhouse gas emissions,” Johnson said. During the off-season, it’s expected that maintenance on the system’s infrastructure and equipment will involve about $28 million in expenditures. n For thorough coverage of the 2006 season and a preview of the season to come, see the next issue of Great Lakes/Seaway Review (Volume 35 Number 4, April-June, 2007), where results will be reported by port, by international and by interlake trade. Toledo’s grain terminals operated by The Andersons Inc. and ADM Grain Company had a very active year loading both lakers and saltwater vessels. As part of a three-year contract, 76,000 metric tons of pipe has been shipped from the Port of Valleyfield. The pipe was manufactured by Hyprescon, a St. Eustache Quebec-based company for use in the Dominican Republic. German natural gas pipeline is discharged at Midwest Terminals of Toledo International. Windmill components arriving in Oswego throughtout 2006 were used to construct a 195 turbine farm near Lowville, New York. The Green Fleet discharging windmill parts in Oswego. T H E 2 0 0 6 S E A S O N 12 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Amajor investor behind a new Canadian- based shipping company has come from outside the maritime industry. The company’s view is that short sea shipping in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway just makes good business sense. Erie Management Group (EMG), headquartered in Erie, Pennsylvania, is the major shareholder of Great Lakes Feeder Lines, which is planning to begin hauling cargo early in the 2007-2008 shipping season. “Modern tonnage” S H O R T S E A S H I P P I N G The private, strategic investor is partnered with Aldert van Nieuwkoop, former director of market development for the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation (SLSMC), who authored the company’s business plan. Van Nieuwkoop is President of Great Lakes Feeder Lines; Erie Management the majority shareholder. “This is Aldert’s vision,” said Stan Shumway, President of EMG, which was formed in 2004 by entrepreneurs Pat Black, Bill Cooney and Shumway, all of whom believe that great results can come from calculated investments. “We’re taking the greater financial risk, and Aldert has had the courage and the foresight to put himself out there and take both the personal and professional risk. Not every- New feeder lines target short-distance cargo employing European methods Great Lakes Feeder Lines, based in Burlington, Ontario, will ship products from port hubs to consumer areas. S H O R T S E A S H I P P I N G The feeder company is a niche business that will pursue cargo that is terminal bound because rail and trucks are unable to move it from ship to final destination without lag-time. without lag-time. Upon securing additional contracts, more ships will be added to the feeder line’s fleet. “We’ll adjust to the market needs,” van Nieuwkoop said, noting that the company’s management style is to think like its customers and be flexible. Launching ships outside the system. To establish a business base, the partners are also investers in Canada Feeder Lines and a Dutch company based in Groningen, the Netherlands. The company is preparing to receive a fleet of four new ships that are being constructed at Shipyard Peters in Kampen, Netherlands. The ship design— 6,500-metric-ton, multipurpose short-sea shipping vessels—is identical to the Frisian Spring, the first modern short sea shipping vessel built at Port Weller Dry Docks before it closed last year. The vessels have boxed-shaped hulls as well as two holds and hatches, travel 12 to 13 knots and are designed to break ice. The ships can haul bulk, breakbulk and containers in their 280,000 cubic feet of capacity. “We are making, what we call, a one step two step,” van Nieuwkoop said. “By investing in the vessels currently under construction in the Netherlands, we have a foothold from which to build our Great Lakes fleet.” The first vessel is scheduled to be launched in April and enter service in June, Shumway said. The ships will be used as feeder vessels in European waters, with hopes of building the business in the system to a point that modern vessels of this type can be used body would leave a safe, secure job to be an entrepreneur.” Van Nieuwkoop announced his resignation from the SLSMC in June, effective in November. Since then, he’s been fine tuning partnerships that are expected to materialize into shipping contracts for the coming season. EMG had previously bid to take over the then-vacated shipyard in Erie, losing the bid to Dirk VanEnkevort, who now operates Erie Shipbuilding at the nearby port. Rather than give up, the management group is backing what could become a key business in taking short sea shipping another step forward. “We lost the bid, but decided that the short sea shipping business looked like an interesting business,” Shumway said. “We see value in the business long-term. We think the railroads are clogged and the highways are clogged and moving freight by water makes a lot of sense.” Great Lakes Feeder Lines, based in Burlington, Ontario, will ship products from port hubs to consumer areas. The company is finalizing plans to buy a used vessel that will either be dedicated to a single cargo package or will be large enough to cover the dedicated run and additional deliveries. The ship being considered would be equipped with roll-on, roll-off and load-on, load-off capability to transport breakbulk, bulk and trucks. The ship is expected to be sailing the system by early summer. The feeder company is a niche business that will pursue cargo that is terminal bound because rail and trucks are unable to move it from ship to final destination GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 13 14 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com maintained onboard, but leased from the manufacturer—saving on maintenance costs and reducing downtime. The modern ships are about a tenth the size of a laker. “Yet, in a highly competitive environment such as the European short sea shipping scene, and with high labor costs associated with European crews, these vessels are making money,” van Nieuwkoop said, noting that the success is coming as a result of the evolution of the market dynamics, which involve land-based transportation congestion, and the environmental impact of increased fuel consumption. “We are seeing these dynamics take place here now, on this side of the ocean.” The partners of Great Lakes Feeder Lines are taking the next step; they’re responding to the changing dynamics that are being discussed from North America’s east to its west coasts. Although lakers are known for benefiting from economies of scale, often by Great Lakes Feeder Lines. “The market is a little immature for those ships right now,” van Nieuwkoop said, “although they could be utilized on a container run.” “Our philosophy is modern tonnage,” he added. “Through a well-designed, fitfor- purpose vessel, with technological advances, we are able to reduce operating costs. At the end of the day, the hold is just air and it is the cargo hold that provides you a return. Everything around it costs money. The trick is to keep everything around it as efficient as possible.” Planning for Lakes-stationed ships. Whether for the Lakes or European waters, the partners’ philosophy is to keep ship design simple. Great Lakes Feeder Lines has plans to operate more 6,500-metric-ton ships or even go to a 4,000-metric-ton design. The smaller, 89-meter-long vessel would be outfitted with one 1,800 kilowatt engine. “This vessel carries the equivalent of some 110 trucks or truckloads,” van Nieuwkoop said. “That accounts for 110 trucks, 110 or more drivers, 110 engines you have to maintain, 3,500 tires you have to rotate.” Looking to the future, van Nieuwkoop sees another design, Peters Open Porter 5,400 vessels, possibly being used in the system. These open-sea/river container ships are laid out as cellular container vessels with no hatches. Cell guides enable quick stowing. Of particular interest is the ship’s use of diesel electric power plant, meaning that diesel generators are located on the deck unitized as containers. There is no engine room, and depending on power requirements, there could be several units operating at the same time. Adaptability of the number of diesel generators used saves in fuel consumption. And because the units can be changed out, they would not be The modern ships are about a tenth the size of a laker. This vessel design incorporates a fully-automated loading, stowage and discharge facility. The hold is temperate and humidity controlled. S H O R T S E A S H I P P I N G A next step: Erie Management looks to build container facility Great Lakes Feeder Lines isn’t Erie Management Group’s sole interest in the system. The company plans to construct a container terminal to aid in processing cargo, whether in Erie or somewhere else in the system, according to Stan Shumway, President of Erie Management Group (EMG). One possible location is EMG’s property on the Lake Erie waterfront, adjacent to the former 213-acre International Paper site where it’s constructing a biodiesel fuel plant. EMG previously transformed the abandoned International Paper land into a $50 million manufacturing and office complex. “A container operation will be a complementary activity on the same site as the plant or a nearby site just to take advantage of what we perceive to be a need,” Shumway said, noting that the container service would be unrelated to the plant. “We’re identifying what needs to be containerized to make sure we have some semblance of a market before we build it.” Plans for the container service are preliminary, with EMG perceiving the need, doing additional market research and looking for a potential port partner. “We’ll take this as it comes,” Shumway said, “and if the opportunity presents itself, we’ll take that opportunity.” n HEAD OFFICE Plac Rodla 8, 70-419 Szczecin, Poland tel. (+48 91) 359 43 33, 359 40 81 fax (+48 91) 359 42 88 email: pzmmanagement@polsteam.com.pl www.polsteam.com.pl The coils on the Rollo 2500 can be picked up dockside by a crane or tow motor. S H O R T S E A S H I P P I N G providing the lowest possible price per ton, the partners are basing their business model on European examples, where value is proven to be created by cost as well as reliability, time, frequency and flexibility. As a 100 percent Canadian-owned company, Great Lakes Feeder Lines’ ships will sail under the Canadian flag. EMG, together with the feeder lines, hopes to operate vessels under the Jones Act. Producing waterborne cargo. EMG isn’t planning on just shipping goods along the waterways. By this time next year, its new, $35 million biodiesel fuel plant will be producing 90 million gallons of freight between fuel and feeder stock annually— 247,000 gallons a day—all of which could be shipped via the waterway, according to Shumway. EMG will be doing tests at the plant in June, with plans to have it in full production by September. It’s expected to be one of the top 10 biodiesel plants in the country by volume. In addition to exporting its product, the plant will also be importing large amounts of one or all of the following for production: soybean oil, palm oil from East Asia and rapeseed oil from Canada. Biodiesel fuel is used as an additive to heating oil and petroleum-based marine and road diesel fuel. “We prefer to move all this on the water so we can take advantage of the cost savings that can be had,” Shumway said, noting that it’s a “happy coincidence” that EMG has met and partnered with van Nieuwkoop in creating its own shipping company in the system. However, van Nieuwkoop said the biodiesel company will be bidding out its shipments. Great Lakes Feeder Line will have to be competitive to earn the work. “We’re not planning on having the biodiesel fuel as our primary cargo,” he said. “It is an area we will be involved in, as long as we can be competitive.” In addition to the Erie plant, EMG is currently looking for two more sites on which to build similar plants, all of which are on the water and translate into liquid bulk tonnage. Negotiations are ongoing for sites in Ontario and Virginia and potential sites have been identified in Panama and Albany, New York. As a management group that is involved in a number of industries through its investments, Shumway and his partners are becoming educators for the system—with good results. “When we talk to other investors and people in the biodiesel industry, a lot of them are unaware of the advantages to be had,” Shumway said, “but when it’s explained to them, they quickly grasp the advantages of it.” Although van Nieuwkoop is seeing a long-time vision come to fruition, he acknowledges the miles and miles that remain to be traveled before the business can be lauded as a success. To date, though, he’s sidestepping naysayers, encouraging governments to update policies that are hindering short sea shipping for every shipper and continuing to bring his roots—the European formula—to North America with modern ships. “We take a little different approach,” he said. “That’s how we distinguish ourselves. 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Thurnau Professor University of Michigan Research is underway at the University of Michigan to examine the hydrodynamic effects of using a Ballast-Free Ship Concept on future Seaway bulk carriers. This research is intended to show the true economic impact of using this concept compared to installing ballast water treatment equipment, such as filtration and UV, when ballast water exchange is no longer accepted in the future. This concept will help address the risk from vessels entering the Great Lakes and U.S. coastal waters in the ballast condition, but will have less effect on vessels entering loaded (the so-called No Ballast Onboard or NOBOB vessels). The Ballast-Free Ship Concept was invented in the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering at the University of Michigan in 2001 in an attempt to reduce the threat of further introducing nonindigenous aquatic species into the Great Lakes and coastal waters. In this concept, the traditional ballast tanks are replaced by ballast water trunks that run from the bow to stern below the ballast water- In this concept, the traditional ballast tanks are replaced by ballast water trunks that run from the bow to stern below the ballast waterline. Ballast-free ships Investigations at the University of Michigan use local water for ballast of building a new scale model. Only a single configuration of the trunk inlet and outlet locations could be tested. The initial tests, conducted as part of Doctoral student Miltiadis Kotinis’ research, showed that the use of the concept resulted in a 7.4 percent increase in the required power for the ship when the ballast water was exchanged every two hours. Even with this fuel cost penalty, the concept was shown to be only slightly more expensive than the use of filtration and UV treatment for ballast water treatment. A conclusion of this initial work was that with further hydrodynamic optimization most, if not all of this power penalty, could likely be eliminated. Because the ship power and fuel penalty created an apparent disadvantage to the future use of the Ballast-Free Ship Concept, research collaborators Michael Parsons and Assistant Professor Kotinis of the SUNY Maritime College approached the Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute (GLMRI) for additional funding to investigate ways to eliminate the apparent increased power This is the five meter (16-foot-5-inch) precision scale model of the Seaway-size bulk carrier used in the investigation. line. A comparison of the midship sections of a typical Seaway-sized single-hull bulk carrier and a Ballast-Free Concept bulk carrier of the same grain capacity is shown in the figure on page 21. In the ballast condition, the trunks are open to the sea and utilize the natural pressure difference between the bow and the stern of a moving ship to create a slow flow through the trunks. Thus, the vessel carries only “local ballast water,” essentially eliminating the transport of foreign ballast across the globe. The initial investigations on this new concept were conducted under National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support through their National Sea Grant Office. This investigation included all aspects of the system design, concept development and economic evaluation, but it was necessarily limited due to its comprehensive scope. As a result, the initial experimental testing in the university’s Marine Hydrodynamic Laboratory had to use an existing model that was not typical of a Seaway bulk carrier, in order to save the cost change of fluid every 90 minutes, which would accomplish the environmental goal of carrying “only local water.” The preliminary results of the hydrodynamic testing show that there is a significant difference between the two discharge locations. The forward discharge location is clearly preferred over the aft location based upon the hydrodynamic performance. It is also preferred from an arrangements and construction standpoint since it does not require the ballast trunks to pass through the crowded engine room. At the forward discharge location, use of the Ballast-Free Ship concept appears to result in a 4.4 percent increase in the resistance of the ship, but the required propulsion power drops by a substantial 6.3 percent due to improved propeller performance in the more uni- The Ballast-Free Ship Concept would result in a savings of about 20 cents per metric ton of cargo carried. Midship sections of a typical Seaway-size bulk carrier (left side of diagram) and Ballast-Free concept bulk carrier (right side of diagram) with the same grain capacity. The two discharge locations tested in the Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratory. Location of the ballast trunk inlet in the bulbous bow is designed to provide a large positive pressure. GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 21 requirement. The GLMRI has supported this investigation in two phases. In the first phase, a Seaway bulk carrier hull form was designed and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies were performed using the commercial code FLUENT® to establish the Ballast-Free Ship design system parameters. Based upon this design, a five meter scale model was constructed for the project at FM Patternworks, in North Vancouver, British Columbia. In the second phase of the GLMRI sponsorship now underway, the university is performing additional CFD studies and conducting model tests in the Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratory (MHL) to optimize the details of the Ballast-Free Concept system in order to minimize any power penalty. The design under investigation takes the inlet to the ballast trunks at the tip of the bulbous bow in order to provide maximum pressure to drive the ballast trunk flow. In the initial testing, two discharge locations, as shown in the photographs at the right, have been tested. One discharge location is above the shaft line just aft of the forward engine room bulkhead. The second location is at the shaft line near the aft engine room bulkhead. The discharges are at a small angle (~10°) relative to the surface of the stern. Tests were conducted in early January to establish the change in ship resistance and required propulsion power to proceed at 15.5 knots in the ballast condition with flow through the ballast trunks. The flow rate was set to produce a complete form flow field. At the aft discharge location, the resistance increases only 0.8 percent but the propulsion power is reduced by only 1.1 percent. In either case, the 7.4 percent propulsion power increase (at an even slower ballast trunk flow rate) seen in the initial testing of a non-Seaway bulk carrier at a much higher ballast speed has been shown to be incorrect when a more appropriate discharge location and orientation is used on a Seaway- sized bulk carrier. With the design of the ballast trunk discharge at the forward engine room bulkhead, the economics associated with the use of the Ballast-Free Ship concept in future new construction bulk carriers would be significantly improved. Instead of a small increase in Required Freight Rate compared to the installation of filtration and UV systems for ballast water treatment, the Ballast- Free Ship concept, using this design, would result in a savings of about 20 cents per metric ton of cargo carried. This investigation is continuing in order to establish the optimum location for the discharge using additional CFD studies. The location indicated by this work will then be confirmed by additional model-scale testing later in the coming summer. n B A L L A S T W A T E R M A N A G E M E N T GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 23 D R E D G I N G With a $200 million backlog in dredging in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system, industry representatives are going back to the drawing board, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to change how information flows into and through the legislative budgeting process. The Great Lakes Maritime Task Force and the Corps recently partnered in three meetings to establish better communications and to discuss potential changes to the Corps’ budget metrics. “I sincerely believe that by working together, we can develop solutions to many of the serious investment challenges we face in ensuring the continued viability of the waterway,” said Brigadier General Bruce Berwick, division engineer for the Corps, when inviting stakeholders to meet. By partnering in the meetings, the Great Lakes Maritime Task Force has inserted the industry farther up in the budgeting process, with hopes that improved communication will produce improved funding. “One of our handicaps has been not having good information in the past,” said Steve Fisher, task force member and Executive Director of the American Great Lakes Ports Association. “Last year, the Corps agreed with that and said it had to stop. We’re making sure the region is empowered with good information.” “The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ budget for the Great Lakes has not kept pace with inflation or the age and general condition of the Great Lakes navigation system,” said Ted Smith, President of Marine Tech. “And worse yet, the users and benefactors of this system have done little or nothing to Great Lakes Funding Great Lakes Navigational System Actual and System Needs Establishing ONE VOICE Industry repositions to increase advocacy for dredging dollars Budgeting for the Corps’ Civil Works Program (x000) Lakes & Rivers Division PRESIDENT’S BUDGET APPROPRIATION FY 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 577,814 $ 682,498 FY 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563,307 668,664 FY 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616,668 712,700 FY 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703,502 747,591 FY 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677,758 636,681 FY 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702,286 866,800 Lakes & Rivers Division Operations & Maintenance (x000) FY 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 357,000 $ 264,000 $ 93,000 FY 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343,000 250,000 93,000 FY 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345,000 246,000 99,000 FY 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339,000 253,000 86,000 FY 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361,000 264,000 97,000 FY 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330,000 252,000 78,000 FY 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330,000 252,000 78,000 PRESIDENT HOUSE SENATE FY2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318,484 323,931 299,896 Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Civil Works Programs Integration Division OHIO GREAT LRD RIVER LAKES pressure Washington to change.” Getting started. Since December, meetings have been held in Cincinnati, Cleveland and Chicago, each with a different focus. The December meeting provided time for the industry and Corps to communicate about critical dredging needs while district Corps personnel explained its role, capabilities and limitations in setting and changing federal budgets. “We need more pre-established stakeholder meetings to help us manage risk together,” said Hiroshi Eto, chief of the Civil Works Programs Integration Division for the Great Lakes and Ohio River Division. “Performance-based budgets require tough decisions to be made within constrained funds. Communication and partnerships have never been more important.” In addition to talking, the Corps has published fact sheets online that outline each project’s: • Harbor features • Needs • Consequences of not being maintained • Transportation importance Needs are defined as requirements that maintain basic system functionality. The work achieves an acceptable level of risk in the system, maximizes system reliability and reduces the risk of catastrophic failures. Transportation importance involves whether the harbor is a major receiving and shipping port, defined by generating revenues of $80 million annually and directly supporting 1,000 jobs. As new budgets are presented and changed, the fact sheets will be updated, said Kathy Griffin, chief operations officer for the Corps’ Buffalo District. (To view the fact sheets, go to the Corps Detroit District homepage and select Great Lakes Fact Sheets.) “We can communicate needs and facts,” Griffin said. “Once that budget is issued, we support the President’s budget. If changes are made to it, we then support the changes to the President’s budget.” Because the Corps cannot serve as a funding advocate for the system, the meeting served as a starting point for stakeholders to become more informed on the budget process, which begins with the Corps of Engineers at the district level, moves to Washington, becomes public the first week of February when the President releases the proposed budget and then moves on to the Congressional Appropriations Committee, where it is apt to change through House and Senate mark-ups. The final budget, set by Congress, is normally released to the public in the fall of the year. The actual release date fluctuates, depending on Congress, as evidenced by the 2007 • Marine Contractors • Salvage • Ship Assist • Dredging • Pile Driving • Dock Work • Diving MARINE TECH, LLC 2220 Whittier St., Duluth, MN 55803 Tel: (218) 720-2833 Fax: (218) 525-9574 www.marinetechduluth.com Transportation Services: Transportation of Petroleum Products, Cement, Construction Materials and Other Commodities, Ship Management, Lightering, Icebreaking and Dead Ship Tows Construction Services: Breakwaters, Pier Repairs, Marine Pipelines, Intakes and Outfalls, Salvage, Underwater Cables, Underwater Repairs and Inspections, and numerous other applications. Andrie Inc. A Marine Transportation and Construction Company Stanley R. Andrie, President P.O. Box 1548 Philip J. Andrie, President Muskegon, MI 49443 Office (231) 728-2226 www.andrie.com Fax: (231) 726-6747 24 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Executive Director of the Port of Oswego Authority Highest staff position at the Port of Oswego Authority reporting directly to the Board of Directors Responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of the Port, including the development and implementation of policies and procedures, financial reports, projections, strategic plan, marketing plan, and capital plan. Also responsible for management of Port property and representing the Port on local and regional committees and boards. BS preferred with a strong business acumen. Knowledge in logistics, shipping and/or transportation essential. Resumes only, by March 31, 2007 to: carol.fletcher@crfletcher.com CR Fletcher Associates, Inc. 126 N. Salina Street Suite 107 Syracuse, NY 13202 315-471-1000 Circumstances have been creating what is now being called a “dredging crisis” in the Great Lakes: decreasing water levels in the Lakes since 1998 and years of underfunding dredging projects. GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW January-March, 2007 25 budget, which was passed to the new Congress unapproved. Dredging crisis. Need is driving the task force and Corps to greater cooperation. Circumstances have been creating what is now being called a “dredging crisis” in the Great Lakes: decreasing water levels in the Lakes since 1998 and years of under funding dredging projects. Apathy by stakeholders is dwindling as ships struggle through siltcongested channels and light-loads became the norm at the 2006 season’s end in Lake Superior. “As lake levels fluctuate, dredging is either critical or not,” Fisher said. “When we have a dry period, like we’re having now, everyone starts noticing the need for dredging.” Notice they have. More than 100 people attended the December meeting. “There was momentum in the fact that it was well attended,” said Kurt Luedtke, president of Luedtke Engineering Company in Frankfort, Michigan. “I remember meetings where there were only three stakeholders.” “The Corps officials listened,” he said. “They take our issues seriously, but the way the political climate is in Washington, there’s not much they can do. The country doesn’t seem to be too concerned with its waterborne infrastructure.” The task force is working to create that concern by rallying stakeholders to make its voice heard—as individuals and as a group. “When a highway has potholes, everyone knows it,” Fisher said. “When dredging is needed, nobody knows it. It becomes incumbent on those in the maritime community to inform people that the harbors need to be maintained and why it’s important.” Looking for a better way. The second and third meetings were industry sponsored. The January 25 assembly in Cleveland involved brainstorming how to change the Corps’ budget metrics. According Eto, the Corps is working to develop a valuebased asset metric to ensure that its objectives align with what stakeholders believe it should be providing. “We also want to ensure the Great Lakes are getting equal footing in terms of the national budgeting process,” he said. “We want to make sure the metrics properly conveys the value of navigation on the Great Lakes system.” Through collecting input on metrics and prioritization criteria and on how to best quantify the system’s output value, the Corps hopes to develop more objective fact- 2007 Great Lakes Maintenance Dredging Projects EST. PROJECT DISTRICT CUBIC YARDS Alpena Harbor, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 25,000 Ashtabula, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 60,000 Burns Harbor, IN (Harbor Nav Channel) . . . . . Chicago 80,000 Cleveland, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 225,000 Calumet Harbor, IL (Harbor Area) . . . . . . . . . . Chicago 90,000 Detroit River, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 200,000 Duluth-Superior Harbor, MN & WI . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 100,000 Fairport, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 120,000 Grand Haven Harbor, MI (Outer) . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 30,000 Green Bay Harbor, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 100,000 Holland Harbor, MI (Outer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 35,000 Harbor Beach, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 40,000 Huron, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 90,000 Manitowoc, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 50,000 Maumee Bay, Toledo, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 600,000 Maumee River, Toledo, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 100,000 Ontonagon, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 56,000 Oswego, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 35,000 Rochester, NY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buffalo 150,000 Saginaw River, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 110,000 Sebewaing River, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 35,000 St. Clair River, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 40,000 St. Joseph Harbor, MI (Outer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detroit 40,000 Waukegan Harbor, IL (Inner) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chicago 49,000 Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District based funding that is more system-focused than district-focused. Implementation of a new metric could impact funding as early as 2009, according to Griffin. “This meeting, of the three, was the most experimental,” Fisher said. “The Corps has not adopted a national set of metrics on how to budget. Cincinnati [the Corps’ regional headquarters] has some thoughts on what metrics ought to be used and are meeting with stakeholders to get their input. They may come up with a brilliant way to prioritize funding in the region, but we just don’t know the meeting’s relevance yet.” Turning information into action. The final gathering proved to be the most important in the short-term. 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