Vol.43 No.4 APR‑JUN 2015

V O L U M E 4 3 A P R I L – J U N E 2 0 1 5 N U M B E R 4 New vessels expand fleets . Inspecting ballast water . Moving liquid bulk . Future Coast Guard use for AIS G LGREAT LAKER Interlake Steamship Interlake Steamship’s capable and experienced vessel crews know the Great Lakes. They’ve navigated them all, even the most challenging ports. Interlake’s knowledgeable marketing and traffic personnel understand your business. And Interlake’s conscientious operations and engineering staff oversee machinery upgrades and continual improvement processes aboard their nine versatile self-unloaders. Together, the Interlake team provides safe, reliable, and timely delivery of your bulk cargos. Vessel capacities from 17,000 to 68,000 gross tons permit flexibility in fulfilling your Great Lakes transportation needs. Put the knowledgeable Interlake team to work for you. Phone: 440-260-6900 • 800-327-3855 FAX: 440-260-6945 Email: boconnor@interlake-steamship.com Website: www.interlakesteamship.com The Interlake Steamship Company 7300 Engle Road Middleburg Heights, Ohio 44130 GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 1 The international transportation magazine of Midcontinent North America New developments in fleet renewal. Page 7. U.S. Coast Guard plans integration of virtual buoys. Page 23. Parts from the St. Marys Challenger find new Great Lakes homes. Page 60. www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Great Lakes/Seaway Review 221 Water Street, Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA (800) 491-1760 FAX: (866) 906-3392 harbor@harborhouse.com Between issues of Great Lakes/Seaway Review, stay current with our free weekly news service, Digital Dateline, at www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com/digdateline/ A R T I C L E S Maritime Heritage SHARING THE CHALLENGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Treasures from the Great Lake’s oldest steamer preserved. Marine Photography DRAWING ATTENTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Boatwatchers from several generations enjoy the big ships. Maritime Heritage ICONIC PALACE STEAMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Some 60 elegant steamboats thrived on the Lakes for a short time. Meet The Fleet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 On The Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Laker Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Shipbuilding BUILDING CAPACITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Investments continue to expand domestic, international fleets. Ballast Water Management BALLAST WATER SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 System standards and bi-national inspections produce results. Commodities EVIDENCE-BASED DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Stakeholders meet to find best approach for shipping liquid bulk. Aids to Navigation ANOTHER USE FOR AIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 U.S. Coast Guard moves forward to use AIS buoys in the Great Lakes. Seaway Trade Mission MAKING CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Four days of education, analysis and networking opportunities. Ports PORT OF CHEBOYGAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 City purchases property to move port plan forward. Interview LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE, SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Dr. Richard Stewart: A pursuit of excellence, contribution and relevance. Terminals FROM THE GREAT LAKES TO THE WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Federal Marine Terminals celebrates 50 years of stevedoring and handling dry bulk and general cargo. Towing & Barging LOAD-LINE EXEMPTION DENIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Request for river barges to move up eastern Lake Michigan to Muskegon dropped. Propulsion POWERING VESSELS WITH ALTERNATIVE ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Sourcing Great Lakes maritime propulsion from power stations. Regulations COMMERCIAL VESSELS RESPOND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Fleet adapts to recent changes in EPA requirements for environmentally-acceptable lubricants. Shipbuilding LOOKING AT OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Grooved mechanical piping systems are designed to last the life of the vessel. Partnerships TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Regulatory approaches provide for bi-national differences. GREAT LAKER A P R I L – J U N E 2 0 1 5 Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway D E P A R T M E N T S Dateline: Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Administrator’s Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Guest Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Port of Milwaukee Marine Pollution Control Business and Editorial Office 221 Water Street Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA (800) 491-1760 FAX: (866) 906-3392 harbor@harborhouse.com www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com www.greatlaker.com EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS STAFF Jacques LesStrang Publisher Emeritus Michelle Cortright Publisher Janenne Irene Pung Editor Cris Shankleton Creative Director Lisa Liebgott Production Manager Tina Felton Business Manager Amanda Korthase Circulation Manager ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT Kathy Booth Account Manager Rex Cassidy Account Manager James Fish Director of Sales Patricia A. Rumpler Account Manager Ellen Trimper Account Manager William W. Wellman Senior Account Manager EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD John D. Baker, President, Great Lakes District Council, International Longshoremen’s Association; Mark Barker, President, The Interlake Steamship Company; Noel L. Bassett, Vice President-Operations, American Steamship Company; Dale Bergeron, Maritime Transportation Specialist and Educator, Minnesota Sea Grant; David Bolduc, Executive Director, Green Marine; Stephen Brooks, President, Chamber of Marine Commerce; Joe Cappel, Director of Cargo Development, Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority; Rick Dystra, Member of Parliament, St.Catharines, Ontario; Steven A. Fisher, Executive Director, American Great Lakes Ports Association; Anthony G. Ianello, Executive Director, Illinois International Port District; Peter Kakela, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, Michigan State University; Robert Lewis-Manning, President, Canadian Shipowners Association; Mark Pathy, President & Co-CEO, Fednav Limited; John Vickerman, Founding Principal, Vickerman & Associates, LLC; James H.I. Weakley, President, Lake Carriers’ Association. SUBSCRIPTIONS – (800) 491-1760 or www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com www.greatlaker.com Published quarterly. One year $32.00; two years $53.00; three years $75.00. Foreign: One year $47.00; two years $68.00; three years $100.00. One year digital edition $20.00 Payable in U.S. funds. Back issues available for $7.50. Article reprints are also available. Reprints and scans produced by others not authorized. ISSN 0037-0487 SRDS Classifications: 84, 115C, 148 Great Lakes/Seaway Review and Great Laker are published quarterly in March, June, September and December. Postmaster: Send address changes to Great Lakes/ Seaway Review, Great Laker, 221 Water Street, Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA. © 2015 Harbor House Publishers, Inc., Boyne City, Michigan. All rights reserved. No article or portion of same may be reproduced without written permission of publisher. Great Lakes/Seaway Review Cover: Project cargo at Duluth-Superior. Photo by Robert Welton. Great Laker Cover: Watching the boatwatchers. Photo by Jerry Bielicki. THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION MAGAZINE O F M I D C O N T I N E N T N O R T H A M E R I C A VOLUME 43 APRIL-JUNE 2015 NUMBER 4 2 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com • Seaway size ocean vessels • Interlake commerce • Inland river barges • Pipeline facilities • CP Railway Comes with a view! Parcels Available Now 2323 S. Lincoln Memorial Dr., Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53207 www.milwaukee.gov/port • Union Pacific Railroad • Immediate access to ALL transportation modes • Call for information: (414) 286-8131 • www.milwaukee.gov/port bnowak@milwaukee.gov There’s room for you GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 3 Funding for new icebreaker passes U.S. House, presented to Senate While U.S. Coast Guard icebreaking assets are continually a focus, the harsh 2014 and 2015 spring breakouts are prompting a press for construction of a new large icebreaker for the Great Lakes. Costs for an icebreaker similar to the Mackinaw are projected at $150 million. “This past winter, for the second consecutive year, ice coverage on the Great Lakes was well above normal. In fact, this year saw a peak of 89 percent of the Great Lakes basin covered in ice—last year was even worse with 92 percent covered in ice,” said Rep. Candice Miller (RMI), who included a provision for the icebreaker in the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee U.S. Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2015 (H.R. 1987). “Commercial navigation on the Great Lakes is critical not only to the economies of the eight Great Lakes states, but to the U.S. and Canadian economies.” According to Lake Carriers’ Association (LCA), almost 20 percent of its members’ annual bulk cargo can move during the ice season, which begins in mid-December and stretches into April. Late-season ice has hindered the Great Lakes fleet for the past two springs, creating a dearth in early-season deliveries of iron ore, cement and other bulk commodities. In 2014, the regional U.S.-flag fleet experienced $6 million in vessel damage. This year, shipowners delayed departures—some for up to 60 days—to avoid damage. “We’ve taken a very important first step,” said Glen Nekvasil, LCA Vice President. “Our customers need to minimize their stockpiling costs. They want cargo to move as many days as possible, which means we start in ice and we finish in ice.” H.R. 1987 passed by the House May 18, authorizing Coast Guard and Federal Maritime Commission funding levels for 2016 and 2017. A similar provision has been read twice in the Senate and was referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. . G R E A T L A K E S / S T . L A W R E N C E S E A W A Y Ninth District sees new leadership The U.S. Coast Guard Ninth District has a new Commander. Rear Admiral June Ryan was installed June 3 during the Change of Command ceremony in Cleveland, Ohio. Rear Admiral Fred Midgette has filled the post for the past two years. Ryan’s staff tours include serving as the Senior Instructor at the Maritime Law Enforcement School, three tours at Coast Guard Headquarters and two tours in Coast Guard Pacific Area, including her last assignment as the Pacific Area Chief of Staff. Most recently, Ryan served as Military Aide to the President, only the third woman in U.S. history to do so. She assumed the position in June 2013, with responsibilities to provide counsel and support to the Secretary concerning the coordination and execution of policy and operations between the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense. . Rear Admiral June Ryan Duluth breaks ground on intermodal project The Twin Ports maritime community broke ground on the Port of Duluth Intermodal Project—the largest infrastructure project undertaken by the Duluth Seaway Port Authority since the construction of the Clure Public Marine Terminal prior to the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959. The rebuild and expansion of Docks C&D will put a vacant, underutilized dock back into service. Completion of this project will enhance intermodal capabilities, expand heavy-lift and project-cargo capacity and enhance the region’s competitiveness by increasing freight capacity via the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system. The $17.7 million redevelopment project was funded, in part, by a $10 million Transportation Infrastructure Generation Economic Recovery (TIGER) Discretionary grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Transportation. An additional $2.75 million has been provided through the Minnesota Port Development Assistance Program and $990,000 was awarded by the State of Minnesota’s Contamination Cleanup Grant program. The port authority is investing more than $3.9 million in the project. The project involves replacing corroded sheet piling and deteriorated wooden dock walls, resurfacing the deck, reinforcing heavy-lift capacity and constructing a new roll-on/roll-off dock. The project also entails dredging adjacent vessel berths, installing road and rail connections and adding safety and security enhancements. The first phase of reconstruction should be completed in the fall of 2016. . DATELINE Andire Inc. D A T E L I N E 4 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Passenger ferry being tested for Detroit-Windsor When 140,000 people descended on Detroit for the Chevrolet Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix in May, the Detroit-Wayne County Port Authority launched the first of two demonstration crossriver taxi services. The annual Grand Prix is a series of professional road races on Belle Isle. With less than 1,000 acres to work with, attendees cannot bring vehicles onto the island, requiring them to shuttle over by land or water. “The idea involved bringing people from Windsor to the terminal here, clearing them and then taking them to Belle Isle,” said John Loftus, port authority Executive Director, adding the original goal of transporting 4,000 people during the event. In addition to the water taxis, attendees were shuttled on buses over the MacArthur Bridge from Detroit-based parking areas. Both options were included in their ticket price. By chartering vessels and operating throughout the three-day event, the port authority transported about 800 attendees. Foul weather negatively impacted the event, including the ferry services. In 2013, a similar service moved 4,000 passengers. The second of two demonstrations is scheduled for Saturday-Tuesday, August 8-11 when about 7,000 professionals fill hotel rooms and use Cobo Center for the American Society of Association Executives Annual Meeting. The second demonstration was specifically tied to an event at Cobo Center because of a recently completed $279 million three-phase renovation. Once both demonstrations have taken place, the port authority will determine if a passenger ferry service between the two cities is viable. The port authority has $2.4 million available through a federal grant to purchase ferries if it determines to activate a ferry service. . CSA creates ballast research and evaluation fund Members of the Canadian Shipowners Association (CSA) are pooling funds to search for ballast water technology for domestic vessels. An initial amount of C$1.5 million is being used to identify how to best treat ballast water aboard Canada’s domestic fleet through the Ballast Water Research and Technical Evaluation Fund. With no type-approved technology available to comply with ballast water regulations in Canadian and American waters, CSA members are searching for solutions. “There are some short-term projects that must be realized quickly,” said CSA President Robert Lewis-Manning. “One involves working with the State of Minnesota on its ballast water monitoring requirements. Ultimately, we expect to need this capacity for a few years at a minimum, especially as there are already regulatory compliance challenges and a lack of technology for our unique ships and unique operating environment.” Seaway receives award for hands-free mooring The St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation (SLSMC) received the Promising Innovation in Transport Award in the freight category from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for developing the world’s first Hands-Free Mooring (HFM) system for ships transiting its locks. “Seaway employees have demonstrated an innovative spirit that is essential to success in today’s global economy,” said Terence Bowles, President and CEO of SLSMC. “With strong support from a wide variety of stakeholders, including Transport Canada who partnered with us in providing funding for the modernization project, we are setting the stage for a thoroughly modern lock operating system, which will ensure the Seaway’s future competitiveness and sustainability.” With this equipment, SLSMC will replace the traditional practice of manually securing cargo ships in locks with steel mooring lines. Full deployment of HFM at all high-lift locks is scheduled for 2018. . REGIONAL CALENDAR D A T E L I N E GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 5 The primary aim of the fund is to find technical solutions to ballast water management through researching issues unique to Great Lakes freshwater and domestic vessels which do not leave the system. Laker features contributing to needing specialized ballast water treatment systems include design, limited electrical power, uncoated ballast tanks, the higher speed at which they load and unload ballast and full-time status in freshwater. Nicolas Leak has been named the Project Manager of the fund, which will help cover the costs of system testing and data collection of the results. . New York’s system ports awarded funding Highlights from the State of New York’s 2015- 16 budget include $50 million the ports of Oswego and Ogdensburg. Port of Oswego will get $40 million to link with the Port of New York and create additional intermodal rail yards in Syracuse and Binghamton. The Port of Ogdensburg is slated to receive $10 million for improvements to facilities and equipment, including dredging to accommodate larger ships and expanding grain and salt storage areas. . Cleveland approves funding for new equipment, warehouse The Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Port Authority is investing $7.9 million in infrastructure improvements, funded through grants and forgivable loans. The money is being used to construct a new warehouse and purchase new cranes and equipment to support the Cleveland- Europe Express liner service. A $4.9 million Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) grant is being used to purchase two new mobile harbor cranes. The cranes will increase speed and energy efficiency in loading and unloading cargo. The cranes, which will be available for use by the end of 2015, will also reduce emissions and fuel usage. A forgivable $3 million State of Ohio Logistics and Distribution Stimulus Loan is providing the remaining funding for the improvements. . JULY 22-24 2015 Port Security Seminar and Exposition The Westin Crystal City Arlington, Virginia www.aapa-ports.org/Programs/ SEPTEMBER 14-16 Ohio Conference on Freight Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza Cincinnati, Ohio www.ohiofreight.org/ocf.htm 21-22 13th Annual Indiana Logistics Summit Indiana Convention Center Indianapolis, Indiana www.indianalogistics.com/summit 24-25 BWMTech North America Trump International Beach Resort Miami, Florida www.informaglobalevents.com/ event/ballast-water-managementtechnology- conference-usa/ 28-29 Great Lakes Commission Annual Meeting The Drake Hotel Chicago, Illinois http://projects.glc.org/meeting/ OCTOBER 5-8 Breakbulk Americas 2015 George R. Brown Convention Center Houston, Texas www.breakbulk.com REGIONAL CALENDAR The Great Lakes Seaway Partnership are pleased to announce a new coalition of leading U.S. and Canadian maritime organizations working to enhance public understanding of the benefits of marine transportation Lake Carriers’ Association Fednav Limited Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation American Great Lakes Ports Association to learn more, visit us at WWW.GREATLAKESSEAWAY.ORG Two lakers ordered from a Croatian shipyard. Delivery of six Seaway-sized ships for international carriage. Additional orders for European connections. Launch of a new forebody to be paired with a former Danish-flagged aft end. Investments in fleet renewal continue. The latest string of orders and deliveries are part of a $4 billion investment in a new generation of vessels sailing the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system. The ships come equipped with the latest hull designs and equipment—increasing efficiencies and environmental performance. During the 2015 season, Fednav is receiving delivery of six Seaway-sized vessels. They are part of a 27-ship order, 14 of which are lakers. The ships share environmental characteristics of six lakers previously built at Oshima Shipyard in Japan—consuming 28 percent less fuel and producing 28 percent fewer emissions than vessels built a decade earlier. S H I P B U I L D I N G GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 7 Building capacity Investments continue to expand domestic, international fleets “We’re pretty proud of the new ship’s efficiencies,” said Marc Gagnon, Fednav Director, Government Affairs and Regulatory Compliance. “A combination of the new engines and hull form are creating the increase in efficiency. We have our own naval architect working with the shipyard.” The ships will be part of a fleet of 40 lakers servicing FALLine, a scheduled cargo liner service operating between Great Lakes ports and Europe since 1996. This iteration of Fednav’s order differs from earlier deliveries in a key area: design. The vessels have box-holds for improved loading and unloading of cargo like steel and project cargo. The six-hold vessels, each with four onboard cranes, will be used for international trade. The first of the ships to enter the system was Federal Baltic, which arrived in May. Over the summer and into the fall, Federal Beaufort, Federal Barents, Federal Bering, Federal Bristol and the Federal Biscay are arriving. Each vessel is being christened in Japan and then put to work, picking up cargo while en route to the system. Schematics for the bulk carriers include a beam of 78 feet, length of 656 feet and deadweight of 34,100 metric tons—only slight differences from the previously delivered Federal Satsuki and Federal Mayumi, according to Gagnon. The new group of ships will mostly likely be flagged from the Marshall Islands, Fednav’s flag of choice. Adding ballast technology. The last of the six Fednav ships delivering in 2015, Federal Biscay, is expected to be equipped with a ballast water treatment system. Fednav has placed an order for 12 systems for use on ships still under construction. “After extensive analysis and testing, we are confident the technology we are choosing is an affordable and effective means to ensure that Canada meets its ballast water requirements,” said Paul Pathy, President and Co-CEO of Fednav Limited. “We are proud of leading the way, along with government and industry partners, in establishing a level playing field for the Canadian, U.S. and international fleets to operate together in the Great Lakes region.” The system, BallastAce, developed by JFE Engineering Corporation in Japan, is expected to be effective in saltwater and freshwater. It uses a sophisticated filter and injects sodium hypochlorite into the ship’s ballast system. The commitment to use BallastAce comes after years of testing treatment approaches. From the Federal Yukon testing copper ions, the Federal Welland testing electrodialytic disinfectant and the Federal Venture using chlorination, the company has spent millions of dollars seeking a reliable, effective and economical solution to ballast water treatment. The system is in the U.S. Coast Guard’s approval process for certification at the Great Ships Initiative and Maritime Environmental Resource Center facilities in Superior, Wisconsin and Baltimore, Maryland, respectively. Algoma expands renewal program. While eight new lakers are delivering from China, including the two owned by CWB, Algoma Central Corporation is expanding its order for new vessels. Two Equinox Class 650-foot self-unloaders are on order from 3.Maj Brodogradiliste d.d. Shipyard in Rijeka, Croatia. The contracts include a contingency on the shipyard meeting predetermined construction installments. The ships will have the same technology and equipment as the first order of Equinox vessels, including exhaust gas scrubbers to remove at least 97 percent of all SOx emissions from the exhaust. However, the 650s are smaller than the original Equinox Class vessels, made specifically to move aggregates, salt and other products into and out of Canadian and U.S. ports with shallower harbors in the Upper Lakes. Both ships will have forward discharge booms like Algoway and Algorail and will carry in excess of 24,000 metric tons at maximum Seaway draft. They will also have bow and stern thrusters for maneuvering through the shallow harbors. “The specialized service needs of certain customers require the size and type of vessel that Algoma has consistently provided,” said Ken Bloch Soerensen, President and CEO. “We’re making the ships as similar as possible in terms of their power plants, main layouts and equipment so our crew and personnel can be on any full-sized Equinox Class ship or the 650s and benefit from the standard efficiencies,” said Wayne Smith, Algoma Central Senior Vice-President, Commercial. “The new order is exciting. Our older 650s are tremendous workhorses on the Great Lakes in terms of the port calls they make each year and the cargoes they carry.” The new vessels will be replacement ships. The first of the ships is expected to enter service in early 2017, with the second following later that year. Algoma Central last used the Croatian shipyard in the 1980s to construct Algoma Discovery, Algoma Guardian and Algoma Spirit. S H I P B U I L D I N G 8 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Line drawing of Algoma Central Corporation’s Equinox Class – 650-foot design The Great Lakes Towing Company “YOU CAN’T ASK FOR A BETTER JOB THAN BEING A TUG CAPTAIN.” Tradition is in our bones at Great Lakes Towing, but for Tug Captain and 27-year maritime veteran James “Chip” Walsh it’s also in his blood. As a third generation tugman, Walsh remembers watching his Dad, James “Nick” Walsh, at work and seeing his future. “I never thought of doing anything else once I saw what my father did for a living. I always knew I wanted to be a Tug Captain one day.” He learned his craft working side by side with his father aboard G-Tugs. “We had a lot of fun working together,” says Walsh, “I learned a lot from my Dad. He taught me that it’s never just a tow – incidents can happen fast. You can bring the same boat in the same slip 10 times – but it’s always different. Having a contract with The Great Lakes Towing Company – having a tug waiting for you when you arrive – it’s added protection that’s there when you need it most.” But to Capt Walsh, family extends beyond his lineage and into the Port where he works. “The Port of Milwaukee is its own community. The people here – we’re like family. We all look out for each other.” For Walsh, the love of the job is about the connection he feels with his fellow tugmen and the passion he feels for helping ships conduct their business safely. “I love the challenge that the job brings. My Dad always told me to practice often and work hard. Over my career, that hard work has paid off. There is nothing like the satisfaction of a job well done.” Utilizing a Full-Service Lakes-Wide Towing Contract with The Towing Company provides added insurance. It’s an additional level of safety and seamanship to protect your crew, equipment, and the environment; wherever your vessel may call on the Great Lakes. THE GREAT LAKES TOWING COMPANY Get a Quote on Your Full-Service Lakes-Wide Towing Contract Today 216-621-4854 • sales@thegreatlakesgroup.com • www.thegreatlakestowingcompany.com In addition to the newbuilds, Algoma has purchased a 2009-built self-unloader from Gypsum Transportation Limited. The ocean vessel has been renamed Algoma Integrity and has become part of Algoma’s Canadian coastal class vessels, which includes Algoma Mariner and Radcliffe R Latimer. She is 646.7 feet long, 105.6 feet wide and has a summer draft of 37.7 feet. “The ship is well constructed and was designed to carry heavy cargoes,” Smith said. “The addition of Algoma Integrity to our Canadian-flag fleet gives us added flexibility to meet the needs of our customers.” While the full oceangoing vessel will begin service between Montreal and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, she will eventually become part of the company’s international pool of self-unloading vessels. One of the first orders of business was transferring her to the Canadian flag. The vessel purchase and the order for two new self-unloaders represents an investment of C$160 million, bringing the company’s fleet renewal and expansion investment to C$560 million since 2009. Rand adds river-class vessel. Launching a new forebody for a repurposed selfunloader brings Rand Logistics one step closer to delivery. The new forebody is being affixed to the after section of a previously acquired Danish-flagged vessel. Upon completion, the vessel is expected to become the first new Canadian-flagged river class self-unloader introduced to the system in more than 40 years. The new vessel is expected to arrive in the system during the fourth quarter. “The new vessel is fully booked with long-term contractual business and is expected to be the most efficient river class vessel on the Great Lakes,” said Capt. Scott Bravener, President of Lower Lakes Towing. “The introduction of this vessel into service is one of the elements of our strategic plan to improve our return on invested capital and, based on our current expectations, the new vessel will be accretive to return on invested capital in its first full year of service.” Work on the vessel is occurring at Chengxi Shipyard in China. She previously S H I P B U I L D I N G CSL Welland, part of the original Equinox Class order, is now a regular sight in the system. WAGENBO ORG SHIPPING NORTH AMERICA CONTACT: 500 Place d’Armes, Suite 2310 H2Y2W2 Montréal, Canada Tel. +1514 288 8282 \ Fax +1514 842 2744 \ info@wagenbo rgna.ca \ www.wagenborg.com 10 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com S H I P B U I L D I N G GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 11 sailed as M/T Lalandia Swan as a liquid bulker for the Denmark-based company Uni- Tankers. She was built in 1991 at Uljanik Shipyard in Croatia. New propulsion equipment for the ship includes an 8,000 hp B&W 5L50 MC main engine, shaft alternator, exhaust gas boiler and two new Tier 2 MAN/B7W 6L21/31 1,250 kilowatt generators. A new high efficiency propeller is being fitted and the stern tube is being converted to water lubrication. (See the story on page 53 for more on this technology.) With the new vessel, Rand’s fleet grows to 16, 10 Canadian-flagged and six U.S.- flagged ships. More developments with new salties. Montreal-based Canada Steamship Lines is also part of the system’s shipowners’ $4 billion investment in vessels. With the fleet renewal program coming to completion in late 2014, the company has added four self-unloaders and two gearless bulk carriers to its Great Lakes fleet. Like other newbuilds, the latest technology makes these ships more efficient and environmentally-friendly. Part of the order also involved five ships for the international fleet. Regularly sailing in the system, Polish Steamship Company, or Polsteam, is spending $438 million on vessels built for the system. The company has a dozen bulkers under construction at Yangzijiany Shipbuilding in Singapore, China, most recently adding four more Seaway vessels to the order with an option to add two additional lakers. The 36,500-dwt vessels will deliver in 2017. The first 12 vessels on order are expected to deliver in 2016 and 2017. According to Piotr Cichocki, President of Polsteam USA Inc., the company is dedicated to serving companies trading in the Great Lakes by retaining a young and efficient fleet. With both domestic and international fleets investing in new vessels, key assets are beginning to sail with greater efficiencies and opportunities for the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system. Janenne Irene Pung . The Solvia en route to the CHS docks in Superior, Wisconsin. SOURCE: ROBERT WELTON Fednav | FMT | FALLine | Fednav Direct | GREENER THAN EVER www.fednav.com For six consecutive years, these partner agencies making up the Ballast Water Working Group (BWWG), along with the cooperation of shippers, have achieved 100 percent adherence to self-imposed ballast water rules. It can be a long work day for the binational team of ballast tank inspectors. The small corps of international marine specialists is tasked with ensuring vessel compliance to rules designed to protect the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system from new aquatic invasive species. The successful ballast water management program is a joint effort of the U.S. Coast Guard, Transport Canada Marine Safety and Security, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC) and The St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation (SLSMC). For six consecutive years, these partner agencies making up the Ballast Water Working Group (BWWG), along with the cooperation of shippers, have achieved 100 percent adherence to self-imposed ballast water rules. In 2014, 100 percent of vessels bound for the Great Lakes/Seaway from outside the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) received ballast management exams on each Seaway transit. In total, all 8,497 ballast tanks were assessed during 454 vessel transits. Vessels that did not exchange ballast water or flush the ballast tanks were required to either retain the ballast water onboard, treat the ballast water in an environmentally-sound and B A L L A S T W A T E R M A N A G E M E N T GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 13 Ballast water safety System standards and bi-national inspections produce results A Seaway inspector demonstrates ballast tank testing. Ocean Group 14 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com pervisor of the Marine Safety Detachment at Massena, New York. “It requires good communication and the support of leadership up the chain.” “There’s a lot of work that goes on behind the scenes before a ship gets an inspection,” said Peter Burgess, SLSMC Marine Specialist. Regulations require tank flushing 200 nautical miles offshore to kill any freshwater organisms present. Vessel command and crew document the measure and prepare a ballast water reporting form prior to an inspection. Forms record voyage information, ballast water uses and capacity, ballast water management methods, ballast water sources, management practices and the discharge location. “We have a lot of repeat customers,” said Burgess. “They are now well versed in the inspection and are proactive to make sure they’ve complied with all regulations.” Bi-national team. The agency process is set in motion when ships forward their arrival details. All vessels must electronically provide 96-hour notice to SLSMC of when they’re expected to arrive in Canadian waters. U.S. regulations require ballast water reports be sent to the U.S. Coast Guard 24 hours prior to reaching Montreal, if the vessel will be entering the Great Lakes. “Shipping, being what it is, requires a lot of tracking once a ship is targeted to keep up with the ever-changing arrival times,” said Marine Specialist Matthew Trego, an electronic engineer retired from approved manner or return to sea to conduct a ballast water exchange. Required vessels unable to exchange ballast water retained it onboard and received a verification exam when exiting the Seaway. In addition, 100 percent of the ballast water reporting forms were screened to assess ballast water history, compliance, voyage information and proposed discharge location. There was no non-compliant ballast water discharged in the system, which the BWWG anticipates will continue through the 2015 navigation season. Most stringent in the world. Since 2006, ballast water management requirements in the system have been the most stringent in the world. The measures have nearly eliminated the risk of introducing new aquatic species into the Great Lakes, according to independent research by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. The process demands coordination, cooperation and timing. “It requires a concerted effort by both countries to make it happen,” said Coast Guard Lt. Commander Carl Kepper, Su- B A L L A S T W A T E R M A N A G E M E N T A refractometer is used for testing ballast water salinity. MARINE INGENUITY Our range of marine services is the most comprehensive in the industry. Whatever your needs in ship construction and repair, dredging, specialized equipment rental, harbour towing or marine transportation, our expertise and creativity will be useful in providing you with ingenious solutions tailored to your needs. WE ARE PROPELLED BY OUR MARITIME PASSION GROUPOCEAN.COM The Chamber of Marine Commerce GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 15 the Coast Guard who has served as a SLSDC ship inspector for six years. The bi-national team of ballast water inspectors includes representatives from Transport Canada from Quebec City, Montreal and Kingston. • There are 12 U.S. Coast Guard inspectors based in Massena who conduct ballast exams in either Montreal or between the U.S. locks in Massena, New York or Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. • SLSMC has three inspectors located in Montreal and two at the Welland Canal who perform exams between the Canadian locks, near Montreal or in the Welland Canal. • SLSDC’s two ship inspectors and five supervisors conduct ballast exams between the U.S. locks in Massena. • Transport Canada handles inspections of vessels stopping for cargo at ports in the lower St. Lawrence River prior to entering the Seaway. For vessels at anchor prior to entering the Seaway, the U.S. Coast Guard performs exams. Combining ballast tank exams with the mandatory first of the season Seaway voyage inspection limits a vessel’s down time. “Now, ship inspectors are more secondary ballast inspectors, if the primary inspector is unable to attend,” said Trego. On subsequent voyages, vessels not stopping prior to the Seaway are examined by a BWWG member between the locks in Montreal or Massena. A typical day for Trego involves time at the computer, phone calls and as long as six hours on the road to meet ships between Montreal and Quebec City. “This is a 24/7 operation,” he said. “We work closely with the Canadian ship inspection team to ensure we are onsite as needed to avoid any undue delays to the vessels.” An email tracking tool developed by frontline Transport Canada inspectors ensures ballast records are compliant prior to an inspector’s arrival onboard. The onboard process requires from two to four hours for first-time entries to the Seaway and as little as 30 minutes for subsequent inspections. “The key to the ballast program is to get onboard the vessel as soon as practical and manage the ballast prior to the vessel conducting any cargo or ballast operations,” said Trego. “It’s a well-oiled machine,” Kepper said of the coordinated effort. What’s involved? To inspect a ballast tank, inspectors dip a plumb bob through the sounding tube to obtain a sample of the water. A hand-held refractometer is used B A L L A S T W A T E R M A N A G E M E N T Tubing is inserted to draw water from a ballast tank for testing. Greenwoods Guide Pere Marquette Shipping 16 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com to test the salinity of the ballast water, which must not exceed 30 parts per thousand— evidence of the saltwater flushing having occurred. “It’s a simple, accurate tool that requires little calibration,” Trego said. “New requirements for ballast management systems may change how ballast tanks are inspected or handled in the future, but, for now, the testing is simple and effective.” A vessel may have as many as 30 tanks and inspectors must retrieve samples from applicable tanks. Sample results are recorded and later added to databases. While the inspection tools are simple, the task is not without challenges. Ballast water is found in wing tanks, double-bottom tanks, peak tanks and cargoholds. Cargo, physical design and ice can make tank access difficult and lengthen the time required for an exam. On occasion, a chief officer or captain declares compliance, but test results are unacceptable for entering the waterways. When a vessel has tanks not in compliance, the crew is prohibited from using that tank or tanks during their voyage in the Great Lakes. “This message is sometimes not easy to convey,” said Trego. “But we facilitate and educate when we can and we hope their next transit and efforts are more effective and meet regulatory requirements.” Back at the office, Trego completes paperwork before closing out for the day. Each partner agency conducting ballast tank exams is responsible for entering inspection results into the bi-national data base. The information contributed by both countries is compiled at the end of every navigation season. “There’s always a push to do better,” Kepper said. “But it has worked well and it’s a model of great international partnership.” Sally Barber . Since 2006, ballast water management requirements in the system have been the most stringent in the world. Combining the economy of Great Lakes shipping with flexibility for cargoes not suitable for traditional self-unloaders, the tug barge PERE MARQUETTE 41 offers a level of dependable service that translates into outstanding value. Let us help you evaluate how our new articulated tug barge system can benefit your company. 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Box 708 Ludington, MI 49431 (231) 845-7846 Fax (231) 843-5383 www.pmship.com INTO YOUR IS OUR BUSINESS BARGING BUSINESS Available Now 221 Water Street, Boyne City, MI 49712 USA (800) 491-1760 • FAX: (866) 906-3392 • harbor@harborhouse.com Order online at: www.greenwoodsguide.com • Full-color throughout • Spiral bound • 28 tabs for quick, easy reference • Information updated annually for accuracy and integrity The most authoritative guide to Great Lakes shipping available Scan for info Book: $80.00 plus shipping CD: $65.00 includes shipping PDF: $45.00 downloadable online All New Edition While crude oil has been moved throughout the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system successfully for decades, it’s gaining attention as some pipelines operate at capacity and other modes of transportation are needed to meet marketplace demands. While crude oil represents a small amount of the system’s overall commodity flow, experts believe opportunities to move liquid bulk are growing. Simultaneously, orders for a number of tankers planned to sail in the Lakes indicate a growing awareness of the opportunities, while outcry from environmental groups about oil movements—regardless of the mode—is causing concerns. A study by the Pew Research Center projects that by 2050 the population of the U.S. will add 135 million people, a 35 percent increase (world population will reach nine billion). Today, petroleum products account for the majority of transportation fuel, chemicals and plastics produced to support manufacturing, agriculture and mobility (in the U.S., only 1 percent of petroleum is used for electric generation). Even if per capita petroleum consumption is dramatically reduced, population growth will demand increased oil production for the foreseeable future. “Society needs to make choices about how to move and manage crude oil,” said Dale Bergeron, Maritime Transportation Specialist for Minnesota Sea Grant. “Doing away with oil movements is not in the near future, even if our society makes huge adjustments. In this case, we need to handle and move the commodity using the most efficient, safe, secure and environmental methods available to us. To do this, we must understand relative risk on many levels.” C O M M O D I T I E S GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 17 Evidence-based decisions Stakeholders meet to find best approach for shipping liquid bulk Decisions on how power is produced and potentially hazardous materials are transported can be greatly influenced by the NIMBY (not in my backyard) method. When it comes to moving crude oil through the Great Lakes region, a diverse collection of experts and stakeholders are meeting to find common ground and obtain information to initiate evidenced-based decision-making on how to best move the liquid bulk. The discussion was prompted when experts began to see the market’s growing demand for crude oil changing how the product is moved. Regional researchers, transportation experts from various modes, public officials, non-governmental organizations and maritime stakeholders from Canada and the U.S. gathered at the Wingspread Conference Center in Racine, Wisconsin to discuss and define the issues around moving crude oil and what information is needed to make evidence-based decisions on how to best move it through the region. The workshop was designed to take into consideration social, economic and environmental impacts of moving oil. At this time, organizers are hoping to hold a follow-up meeting in October. Port of Toledo This summary shows ‘routes’ to and from each statement made during the meeting in Racine, Wisconsin. The comments were later coded to show possible goals (black), events outside of the group’s control (green), possible high-consensus strategies (red) and central themes (blue). 29 alleviation of transportation bottlenecks [38 24] [P5 2B 1R] 51* create the terms of the deal that will alow the movement of private oil to be placed in public water (supply) 37 potentially lower end-consumer cost for petroleum products [56 18] [P5 3R] 28* opportunities for employment, both in transportation and in preparedness [60 27] [P5 1B 1R] 27* opportunity to fuel the economy [60 29] [P5] 23 opportunity for energy diversification and affordability [50 33] [P5 2R] 15 coordinated approach to collaborative and strategic investment 38 opportunity of increased utility of St Lawrence seaway [P5 1R] 67* identify infrastructure gaps to ensure we can meet future energy demand and security [74 23 ] [P5 4B] [R6 7 2] 54* reduce polarized and divergent political will [53 40] [P5 3B] 52*** address environmental CONCERN for (large) fresh water bodies [90 10] [P5 17B] 10 growing energy demand, national energy independence, regional jobs and economic growth [76 18] [P5 6B 1R] 16* domestic energy boom makes us less reliant on foreign energy [67 26] [P5 2R] 9 reduce diminishing ability to transport oil [36 34] [P5 1B 4R] [P1 1G] C O M M O D I T I E S 18 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com THE PORT OF TOLEDO +1 419 243 8251 toledoseaport.org Just Got Bigger! Now Open For Business! 180 ACRES ADDED TO THE PORT OF TOLEDO AT THE IRONVILLE SITE Water Your Cargo Here! Rail Pipeline Truck 180 More Reasons to …………………… of Toledo! *Identifies infrastructure gaps to ensure ability to meet future demands for energy and security. American Great Lakes Ports Association The prime concern in the Great Lakes is the movement of Alberta Oil Sands and Bakken crude. It moves predominantly east and south through the Great Lakes; however, traditional pipeline capacity is insufficient to move the product to refineries and new pipeline capacity is being developed slowly. This has driven crude oil movement to other modes of transport across the basin (rail showing the most dramatic increase), even though at higher transportation rates and potentially greater risks to communities and the environment. Historically, pipeline and marine transport have been used to move the majority of the world’s crude oil long distances. Today, rail and even road transport are used within the Great Lakes basin. With many pipelines to capacity and new construction being challenged, the product has begun transferring to rail. Tanker cars filled with crude oil began displacing commodities traditionally moved on rail, such as grain. At one point, the federal government in Canada required railroad companies to make moving grain a priority because of the backlog. “There is no doubt that we see an opportunity for crude to move through the system,” said Bruce Hodgson, Director, Market Development of The St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation. “There’s no doubt crude will move and marine offers the safest way to do it. We have an enviable track record and the rules and regulations in place for marine—including double-hulls and response plans for every vessel—involve standards that far exceed what’s in place for other modes.” A meeting of the minds. While beginning to explore the issues in crude oil movements in the Great Lakes region, workshop organizers—Great Lakes Sea Grant Network and Council of the Great Lakes Region— invited discussion of various perspectives, opportunities, issues and risks related to moving the commodity. The conversation between 27 participants was facilitated by the organizers and decision-support software called Group Explorer, which enables attendees to enter comments and perspectives on the issues being addressed. The software then posts the perspectives, validating they’ve been captured, and helps the discussion move forward. The system is especially helpful during emotional discussions where many views are being expressed. The software takes comments and organizes them by similar topics to help negotiate group agreements. At the start of the meeting, 63 views were contributed in nine minutes. A flowchart, or map, was created by connecting C O M M O D I T I E S GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 19 Advocacy. promoting public policies that foster maritime commerce on the Great Lakes-Seaway system for membership information visit: www.greatlakesports.org The conversation between 27 participants was facilitated by the organizers and decision-support software called Group Explorer, which enables attendees to enter comments and perspectives on the issues being addressed. DonJon Shipbuilding & Repair 20 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com to help determine what commodities move on what modes? The market has made this shift without policymakers understanding the consequences and without foreseeing the backlash. A shortage of pipelines has resulted in using rail because it’s the next easiest choice, but it has ended up displacing grain and wheat from the prairies, valuable and perishable commodities. It has increased rail traffic in cities, adding to the social and environmental risks.” At the conclusion of the workshop, a variety of goals and outcomes were compiled. For Kathy Bunting-Howarth, Associate Director of New York Sea Grant, the primary outcome was relationship building. “We are trying to get to a common purpose— the protection of the Great Lakes and the protection of human health and safety, minimizing risk and potential consequence,” she said. “Most of the groups agreed there needed to be some coordinated, collaborative work with the group to determine what the best mode is, what the true risks are of the different modes of transportation and how the benefits and risks are best distributed.” What’s next? Workshop coordinators are pursuing public and private funding— the basis for covering costs for the first meeting—to move forward. The following activities have been identified as needed steps: • Using a collaborative approach to developing an integrated view of transportation, energy and economic policy for the Great Lakes Region that’s supported by a desire to both preserve and enhance the quality of life, natural resource and the economic well-being of the people who live in the region • Creating “terms of the deal” to allow the movement of private oil on public waters, reduce unintended consequences of regulatory actions, meet human goals for safety and mobility, and address concerns for environmental, economic, cultural, health and other values of freshwater This would include economic issues such as: • Addressing the need for long-term economic stability and growth within the region (providing opportunities for employment, both in transportation and in preparedness) • Reducing uneven or overregulation by mode • Using more intentional transportation to meet energy goals • Realizing the opportunity to fuel the economy • Understanding opportunity for energy diversification and affordability what comments align. Mark Fisher, Chief Executive Officer for Council of the Great Lakes Region, said his organization is tasked with building a 21st Century economy while protecting the Great Lakes. Because shifting of crude oil movements is impacting the region’s $5.2 trillion economy, it’s important to determine how to best move the cargo. “Energy plays an important role as to why people do business here, in the reasons why a company wants to locate here and people want to do business here,” he said. “Some of the bottlenecks in the transportation system present questions and a need to better understand the various modes of and movements in today’s borderless economy. We need to know more about what happens when decisions are made to ship a commodity on one mode verses another.” “We realized we needed to have a real conversation with diverse voices and organizations to better understand what’s happening,” he added. “How do we put in place the right frameworks and policies C O M M O D I T I E S Ports of Indiana GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW April-June, 2015 21 • Enabling efficient trade within North America and around the world “There are a lot of information gaps, questions and uncertainties around the potential pros and cons of moving crude in the Great Lakes,” said Dr. James Winebrake, Dean of the College of Liberal Arts at Rochester Institute of Technology, who attended the meeting. The organizers are hoping to do a study to create comparable data between the various modes of transportations for relative risk, environmental impact, energy costs and full lifecycle costs. The study’s results would serve as a “common denominator” between the different modes to help policymakers and citizens have informed and fruitful discussions, according to Bergeron. “To accomplish this, we must have a diverse group of experts in the fields of transportation, logistics, safety and environ- mental impacts, as well as commodities,” he added. “Any piecemeal effort to understand or address this multifaceted issue would prove to be insufficient.” An example. When the system’s shipping industry was faced with diverse attitudes and information regarding ballast water regulations and systems, the Great Lakes Ballast Water Working Group was formed. Industry representatives joined scientists, elected officials and members of non-governmental groups to separate fact from fiction, to discuss how regulations relate with current technologies and how to best minimize the spread of invasive species. Meetings were held periodically in the U.S. and in Canada. While the group shared the same need to use the best available science and incorporate diverse stakeholders, there was not a shared goal at the Wingspread meeting, according to Bergeron. The more recent workshop sought to identify the issues and information gaps between the different attendees that need attention. “We have continued to work with the academics from the meeting to refine a research agenda to try and create a unified approach to collecting the necessary data to create collaborative opportunity in the near future,” he said, noting that the desired agenda will examine the full costs, risks, benefits and liabilities across all modes of transportation for crude oil movement within the basin. “It is our hope that participants and others can continue to refine and clarify the complex and integrated goals and strategies to help Great Lakes citizens sustain both a safe and healthy environment and a thriving and growing community.” Janenne Irene Pung . C O M M O D I T I E S The organizers are hoping to do a study to create comparable data between the various modes of transportation in the areas of relative risk, environmental impact, energy costs and full lifecycle costs. St. Lawrence SeawayManagement Company SLSMC 22 The AIS receiving stations located throughout the Great Lakes will soon be upgraded to transmit AIS ATON. can become Qualify as New Business on the Seaway and you save 20% on tolls If your cargo qualifies as New Business, you can add to your savings by shipping via the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System. New Business can include cargo that has a new origin, a new destination, or that was previously moving via a different mode of transportation. Or cargo that has not been previously shipped via the Seaway in the last 5 years in a volume larger than 10,000 tonnes. Visit our website for details and an application to qualify. www.hwyh2o.com DOUG SHARP Aids to Navigation Ninth Coast Guard District Automatic Identification System (AIS) for certain aids to navigation is coming soon to the Great Lakes. AIS—already used aboard system vessels—is an internationally adopted radio communication protocol that enables the autonomous and continuous exchange of navigation safety-related messages amongst vessels, lifeboats, aircraft, shore stations and the various aids to navigation (ATON). AIS ATON stations broadcast their presence, identity, through a nine-digit Marine Mobile Service Identity number, as well as their position and status at least every three minutes or as needed. These broadcasts can originate from an AIS station located on an existing physical aid to navigation—known as a Real AIS ATON—or from another location, such as an AIS base station. An AIS base station signal broadcasted to coincide with an existing physical aid to navigation is known as a Synthetic AIS ATON. An electronically charted but non-existent physical aid to navigation is called a Virtual AIS ATON. The latter two can be used to depict an existing aid to navigation that is off station or not watching properly or to convey an aid to navigation that has yet to be charted. All three types of AIS use can be received by any existing AIS mobile device, but they require an external system like AIS message 21 capable electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS), electronic chart system (ECS), radar or personal computer for portrayal. How they are portrayed currently varies by manufacturer, but the intention is for the portrayal to be in accordance with forthcoming international standards. Coming to the Lakes. The AIS receiving stations located throughout the Great Lakes will soon be upgraded to transmit AIS ATON. Hopefully, beginning in the fall of 2015, the four Mackinac Bridge buoys will be turned on as synthetic AIS, which means the physical buoy will remain but there will also be an AIS signal identifying the aids. When the gales of November become prevalent and the buoys are removed to prevent ice damage, their AIS ATON signal will be portrayed on the various systems throughout winter navigation. The next step is to turn 23 traditional lighted buoys in the St. Marys River into virtual AIS ATON winter marks. Simply put, this would portray the unlighted winter marks on ECDIS, ECS, radar and personal computer without a physical buoy on station. During the winter, when ice overwhelms the river, many of these unlighted winter marks remain under the ice and not visible. The other concern with the physical winter mark is they are occasionally dragged off station by ice flows and can end up in the middle of the channel or outside the channel, causing a hazard or misleading the mariner. The virtual signal would give the mariner accurate and consistent information by displaying the position, name and type of aid to assist in navigating during these conditions. The only proposed year-round virtual AIS ATON in the Great Lakes involves the Lime Island Traffic Buoy (LLNR 12915) in the lower St. Marys River. The proposal calls for removing the physical lighted buoy and replace it with an AIS ATON virtual aid. Again, a virtual AIS ATON is a signal broadcasted from an AIS base station that is electronically charted, but not a physical aid to navigation. Looking at virtual ATONs. AIS ATON will never entirely replace the current aids to navigation maintained by the Coast Guard in the Great Lakes. The intent is to use AIS ATON to enhance the current system and, in some cases, replace redundancies of physical ATON. Proposed changes to the aid to navigation system are advertised in the Local Notice to Mariner. Mariners are encouraged to review this section and make comments. The goal is to provide the best mix of aid to navigation resources that make our waterways safe and efficient for all users. In the event that an AIS ATON signal would be interrupted or display misleading inform

Maritime Editorial