Vol.45 No.2 OCT‑DEC 2016

V O L U M E 4 5 O C T O B E R – D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 6 N U M B E R 2 A new cement source . Binational icebreaking efforts . Enhancing intermodal growth . Highlighting fleet renewal G LGREAT LAKER Interlake Steamship Great Lakes Fleet Your business and today’s supply chains expect more than haphazard dependability, cryptic scheduling, and a sea of broken promises. Avoid the runaround. Our accomplished staff and premier vessels are at the ready to deliver, backed by more than 2 billion tons worth of cargo experience. Bulk may be our business, but unsurpassed service is what we sell. Leave the art of logistics to the industry leader – Great Lakes Fleet. The Art of Logistics. cn.ca/greatlakesfleet Aircentric THE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME MAGAZINE OF THE GREAT LAKES/ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY SYSTEM VOLUME 45 OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2016 NUMBER 2 Business and Editorial Office 221 Water Street Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA (800) 491-1760 FAX: (866) 906-3392 harbor@harborhouse.com www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS STAFF Jacques LesStrang Publisher Emeritus Michelle Cortright Publisher Janenne Irene Pung Editor Cris Shankleton Creative Director Lisa Liebgott Production Manager Tina Felton Business Manager Amanda Korthase Circulation Manager ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT Kathy Booth Account Manager Rex Cassidy Account Manager James Fish Senior Account Manager Patricia A. Rumpler Account Manager Ellen Trimper Account Manager William W. Wellman Senior Account Manager EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD John D. Baker, President, Great Lakes District Council, International Longshoremen’s Association; Mark Barker, President, The Interlake Steamship Company; Dale Bergeron, Associate Professor, Minnesota Sea Grant; David Bolduc, Executive Director, Green Marine; Joe Cappel, Vice President of Business Development, Toledo- Lucas County Port Authority; Steven A. Fisher, Executive Director, American Great Lakes Ports Association; Tim Heney, Chief Executive Officer, Thunder Bay Port Authority; Peter Kakela, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, Michigan State University; Paul LaMarre, Jr., Port Director, Port of Monroe; Kevin McMonagle, Vice President-Operations, American Steamship Company; Allister Paterson, President, Canada Steamship Lines; Wayne Smith, Senior Vice-President, Commercial, Algoma Central Corporation; Joseph P. Starck, Jr., President, Great Lakes Shipyard; James H.I. Weakley, President, Lake Carriers’ Association; Wendy Zatylny, President, Association of Canadian Port Authorities. SUBSCRIPTIONS – (800) 491-1760 or www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Published quarterly. One year $32.00; two years $53.00; three years $75.00. One year print & digital edition $38. Foreign: One year $47.00; two years $68.00; three years $100.00. One year print & digital edition $53. One year digital edition $20. Mobile edition available on the iTunes store. Back issues available for $7.50. Payable in U.S. funds. Article reprints are also available. Reprints and scans produced by others not permitted. ISSN 0037-0487 SRDS Classifications: 84, 115C, 148 Great Lakes/Seaway Review and Great Laker are published quarterly. Postmaster: Send address changes to Great Lakes/Seaway Review, Great Laker, 221 Water Street, Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA. © 2016 Harbor House Publishers, Inc., Boyne City, Michigan. All rights reserved. No article or portion of same may be reproduced without written permission of publisher. Great Lakes/Seaway Review Cover: The U.S. Coast Guard checks ice in Duluth. Source: Robert Welton Great Laker Cover: Capt. Marvin Cooper leads the McKeil way. Source: McKeil Marine .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. SERVING Y YOU oning and rving the er applications. rvice provider .. ………. …… …….. .. ………. …… ………. re-fabricating capabilities. Midwest and Canada with full reconditio Since 1980, we have been faithfully ser for all types of heat exchangers and intercoole Aircentric Corporation is a distributor and se .. ………… …… ………….. .. ………… www.aircentric.com Ph: 888/937-2131 F Redford, M 12250 Inks Aircentric C m Fax: 313/937-2346 MI 48239 ster Road Corporation 2 GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 3 The international maritime magazine of the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system Concepts for a new generation of icebreakers. Page 19. Algoma continues with fleet diversification and renewal. Page 33. Herbert C. Jackson trades steam for diesel. Page 67. O C T O B E R – D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 6 Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Great Lakes/Seaway Review 221 Water Street, Boyne City, Michigan 49712 USA (800) 491-1760 FAX: (866) 906-3392 harbor@harborhouse.com Between issues of Great Lakes/Seaway Review, stay current with our free weekly news service, Digital Dateline, at www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com/digdateline/ Also available as an interactive digital magazine and a mobile app A R T I C L E S Maritime Heritage A SURPRISE DISCOVERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Great Lakes business website provides key information to whereabouts of USS Indianapolis. Icebreaking History BREAKING THE ICE BARRIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 A report on a dramatic mission that learned it can be done. Meet the Fleet POWERED FOR THE FUTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Interlake’s Herbert C. Jackson trades steam for diesel. Meet the Crew ROOTED IN RESPECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 McKeil’s Marvin Cooper carries on family’s maritime legacy. D E P A R T M E N T S Dateline: Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Administrator’s Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Guest Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 On The Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Commodities A NEW CEMENT SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C$1.5 billion investment to build company, cement plant and terminals. Interview A TRUE LEADER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Rod Jones shares parting words for his company and to an industry. Icebreaking NOVEL CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Breaking barriers in designing a new generation of icebreakers. BINATIONAL ICEBREAKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 U.S. and Canadian Coast Guards prepare for maintaining vessel passage. Ports ENHANCING INTERMODAL GROWTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Two U.S. ports make major infrastructure investments. Shipbuilding JUGGLING THREE SHIPYARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Algoma Central continues fleet renewal to create a more diverse fleet. CEREMONIAL CHRISTENING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Rand Logistics celebrates new River Class vessel, M/V Manitoulin. FROM STEAM TO DIESEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 John G. Munson prepares for new season, new era. Commodities TAKING ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Port of Green Bay meets regional demand by importing petroleum after troubled pipeline shut down. Technology AUTONOMOUS SHIPPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Green Marine continues to offer ports, shipowners and others structure for improved performance. Ballast Water Management TYPE-APPROVAL TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Navigating the U.S. Coast Guard approval process: A vendor’s perspective. G R E A T L A K E R Fednav GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 5 Water infrastructure bill passed The U.S. Congress has approved water resources infrastructure legislation, which addresses funding needs for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projects involving the nation’s harbors, locks, dams, flood protection and other water resources infrastructure. The Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation (WIIN) Act passed in December. It impacts Great Lakes shipping in a variety of ways, including: • Setting harbor maintenance spending targets, which were established in the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA). The annual targets equal a percentage of the previous year’s Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT) revenue. Each year, for 10 years, the percentage is set to increase until full use of the tax is achieved in 2025. Language was included in the WIIN Act to establish a minimum amount to be appropriated for water infrastructure projects annually. Setting a minimum was added because HMT revenue decreased for the first time last funding cycle. Without the fix, the spending targets could result in less harbor maintenance funding in future years. • Reinforcing a WRRDA 2014 inclusion directing the Corps to manage the region as one system, the Great Lakes Navigation System. To date, there are no guidelines for the system approach. WIIN gives the Corps 90 days from enactment to issue guidelines. • Making permanent a WRRDA 2014 funding provision set to expire in 2024, Congress included a provision for the Corps to use 10 percent of all Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund appropriations above FY2012 levels—about $890 million— for projects in the regional navigation system. According to Steve Fisher, Executive Director of the American Great Lakes Ports Association, “a true 10 percent set aside for the Great Lakes, coupled with eventual full use of the Harbor Maintenance Tax, should result in robust harbor maintenance funding for the Great Lakes.” • Continuing appropriations for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative by authorizing $300 million a year funding for the next five fiscal years. . Chamber of Marine Commerce welcomes new leadership As 2016 came to a close, the board of directors of the Chamber of Marine Commerce (CMC) made decisions on new leadership. Bruce Burrows is now President and Robert Turner Vice President, Operations. They join the Chamber following a merger with the Canadian Shipowners Association. Burrows brings almost 35 years of government relations, business development and consensus-building expertise to the position, with senior leadership roles in the commercial transportation and industry association sectors. He started his career at Canadian Pacific, working in the areas of marketing, asset management and government relations across Canada and in the U.K. He was Vice-President and acting President and CEO of the Rail Association of Canada between 2000 and 2013. He recently left a position as Senior Associate at Ottawa- based TACTIX Government Relations and Public Affairs. Turner has extensive experience both aboard ships and in federal government regulatory development and policymaking, which will be invaluable to his role managing the Chamber’s activities related to compliance with the many environmental, safety, human resource and operational regulations and policies that govern the industry. . Montreal opens container terminal The Port of Montreal has opened a container terminal. Viau terminal adds capacity and more efficient connections between marine and water transportation. “The new Viau terminal will have a considerable impact,” said Sylvie Vachon, President and CEO of the Montreal Port Authority. “Ultimately, it will increase the Port of Montréal’s handling capacity by 2.1 million TEUs and generate significant benefits for the region, province and country with annual spinoffs of C$340 million and the creation of 2,500 direct and indirect jobs.” . G R E A T L A K E S / S T . L A W R E N C E S E A W A Y DATELINE Bruce Burrows Robert Turner New Seaway-built Fednav vessels continue to deliver At a ceremony at Oshima Shipyard in Japan, Fednav took delivery of the Federal Columbia, the 12th in a series of 18 thirdgeneration handy-size bulk carriers ordered in recent years. The addition of this Ice Class, box-hold 34,500-DWT laker brings the number of owned vessels to 56 and the average of Fednav’s current fleet—short-term charters excluded—to73 ships just under eight years of age. For more details on what carriers are doing to renew their fleets, turn to our Shipbuilding section beginning on page 33. . IJC enacts Plan 2014 The International Joint Commission (IJC) has approved Plan 2014, guidelines for managing water levels and flows in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The governments of Canada and the United States concur on amendments to the IJC’s Order of Approval, which provides specifics on setting the flow through the Moses-Saunders Dam, located between Cornwall, Ontario and Massena, New York. “Plan 2014 is a modern plan for managing water levels and flows that will restore the health and diversity of coastal wetlands, perform better under changing climate conditions and continue to protect against extreme high and low water levels,” said U.S. Section Chair Lana Pollack. While the plan impacts a wide range of interest groups, it is expected to have little impact on commercial navigation. The frequency of low levels at the Port of Montreal would be about the same, according to the IJC. In rare low-water years, which have been experienced a couple of times in the last century, some ships traversing Lake Ontario would have to light-load. However, in typical years navigation would enjoy small increases in available depths, allowing some ships to carry larger loads more frequently. The change in guidelines is expected to restore 64,000 acres of wetlands. The plan took 16 years and $20 million to complete and is being implemented in January 2017. . IJC Commissioners sign the updated order of approval for Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River Plan 2014. From left to right (seated) are: Gordon Walker, Chair of Canadian Section, Lana Pollack, Chair of U.S. Section and (standing) Commissioners Benoît Bouchard, Rich Moy and Richard Morgan. Andrie 6 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com D A T E L I N E as the Director of Health and Safety and World Class Continuous Improvement at ArcelorMittal Dofasco in Hamilton, Ontario. From his initial role in logistics and planning, Jazvac has progressively risen through the ranks at the Hamilton steelmaker, taking on a wide variety of responsibilities over the years, including roles in transportation, maintenance, manufacturing, quality control, and health and safety. “Bronko Jazvac’s broad expertise in steel manufacturing will provide our board with added depth as we seek to serve an industry that continues to undergo dramatic changes,” said Terence Bowles, President and CEO of the SLSMC. “His experience in both health and safety and in continuous improvement will complement our existing efforts within these disciplines.” Jazvac replaces Jim Wilson, who passed away in July of 2016 after a courageous battle with cancer. . Hamilton looks at expanding food-industry cluster The City of Hamilton and the Hamilton Port Authority (HPA) are initiating a study to determine whether a full-service food and beverage warehouse should be located at the port. The logistics facility would support food and beverage producers within the region and foster stronger export connections to the U.S. consumer market. Such a facility could offer food-grade warehousing, packing and shipping options, along with other services, while taking advantage of the port’s location and transportation connections. The study will explore the possibility of providing on-site customs functions like Canadian Food Inspection Agency inspections and U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) preclearance. It will also look at the market for potential operators and users and spin-off business opportunities for area food manufacturers and processors. The goal behind the study is to further develop an agri-food cluster and food-based logistics capacity. Agri-food has grown into a C$1 billion industry in Hamilton, with HPA being one of the key engines of this growth. More than C$200 million in agri-food sector investment has been attracted to the Port of Hamilton in recent years, including a new G3 Canada Ltd. grain terminal, Parrish & Heimbecker flour mill and the Nickel Brook/Collective Arts brewery. The study is funded, in part, through Growing Forward 2, a federal-provincial-territorial initiative. . Cheboygan port development plans move forward Finalizing three purchase agreements, the Port of Cheboygan in Michigan is taking shape. The City of Cheboygan purchased the acreage with a vision for expanding port operations and creating new jobs. Through two of the pending real estate transactions, established businesses—Durocher Marine, a division of Kokosing Construction Company, and Ryba Marine Construction—are purchasing property adjacent to their operations on the Cheboygan River. Durocher Marine is Cleveland-Fednav partnership sets heavy-lift record A power station project set two milestones for FMT and the Port of Cleveland. The heaviest and largest lift ever handled by FMT Cleveland— a Siemens generator manufactured in Europe and weighing 311 metric tons—was discharged from the MV Palmerton. FMT also oversaw the first roll-off transfer of project cargo from barge to dock in Cleveland. Both the heavy-lift and equipment delivered by barge, including gas turbines, a steam turbine and two more generators, bound for a natural gas-fired combined-cycle power plant being built in Lordstown, Ohio. This new station will be the second largest in the world and is expected to contribute $30 billion to the region’s economy over the plant’s 40-year life span. . Seaway welcomes Bronko Jazvac to board of directors Bronko Jazvac has been appointed to The St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation’s (SLSMC) Board of Directors. Jazvac is a seasoned business leader with 38 years of experience in steel manufacturing. He currently serves SHIP ASSISTS • TOWING CREW BOAT SERVICES • ICE BREAKING SPECIAL PROJECTS ASPHALT & FUEL OIL TRANSPORTATION VESSEL & FLEET MANAGEMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT 561 E. Western Ave. Muskegon, MI 49442 TUGS • BARGES • JACK-UP BARGES • CREW BOAT • CRANES Call Stan Andrie at (231) 332-9227 or Mike Caliendo at (231) 332-9243 www.andrietg.com Port of Duluth REGIONAL CALENDAR GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 7 REGIONAL CALENDAR D A T E L I N E purchasing 676 feet along the river. Ryba Marine added 300 feet of riverfront property in May and the new agreement adds an adjacent 362 feet. Both companies plan to use the land to expand their current operations, which extend throughout the Great Lakes. The third purchase agreement will transfer property, mostly wetlands, to Little Traverse Conservancy for preservation and recreation. The land is located along Lake Huron. In the spring, the city, port property owners and a local foundation will create a marketing plan to draw industrial investors to the port. They will be targeting industries needing access to the waterway for shipping. .. McKeil Marine makes changes Nearly simultaneously, Steve Fletcher became McKeil Marine’s President and Chief Executive Office and TorQuest Partners invested in the company. After 17 years with the company, Fletcher advances to the position previously held by Blair McKeil, who has assumed the role of Vice Chairman. McKeil is a Canadian provider of marine transportation and project services for a wide range of customers and industry sectors across the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway, East Coast and Canadian Arctic. The investment is expected to help McKeil invest in the crew, expand the fleet and build a broader customer base. “A new world of opportunity has opened up and McKeil is now uniquely positioned to act on these opportunities,” Fletcher said. “I look forward to continue working alongside our outstanding crew—the men and women who have contributed to our success—and to begin partnering with TorQuest as we write the next chapter in McKeil’s history together.” TorQuest is a manager of private equity funds with more than $2 billion of equity capital under management. Brent Belzberg, Senior Managing Partner at TorQuest, said: “This is the eighth platform investment for TorQuest Partners Fund III and continues our strategy of partnering with exceptional management teams to build industryleading businesses, while supporting their continued growth.” . 14-15 2017 Great Lakes Waterways Conference Renaissance Cleveland Hotel Cleveland, Ohio www.maritimemeetings.com/great-lakeswaterways- conference.php MARCH 14-16 Great Lakes Commission Semiannual Meeting and Great Lakes Day Mayflower Hotel, Washington, D.C. projects.glc.org/greatlakesday/ APRIL 20-21 Mari-Tech 2016 Hotel Bonaventure Montreal Montreal, Quebec www.mari-tech.org/index.php/mari-tech- 2017 24-26 Breakbulk Europe 2016 Antwerp, Belgium www.breakbulk.com/events/breakbulkeurope/ breakbulk-europe-2017/ JANUARY 8-12 Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting Walter E. Washington Convention Center Washington, D.C. www.trb.org/AnnualMeeting/Annual Meeting.aspx 20 Toronto Marine Club Dinner and General Meeting Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario www.themarineclub.org FEBRUARY 2-5 ISMA Grand Lodge Convention 2017 Ramada Inn (formerly Sanctuary Inn) Alpena, Michigan www.ismanortheastmichiganlodge19.com/ home.html .duluthcargo.com | 218.727.6646 The name says it all. There’s a reason we use this phrase to promote our cargo handling expertise to customers around the world. The Port of Duluth is a multimodal distribution hub for breakbulk, heavy lift, dimensional and other project cargoes moving in and out of North America’s heartland. Duluth is connected to a fast, flexible freight network with direct access to four Class I rail carriers, congestion-free roadways and the Great Lakes-Seaway system. When it comes to delivering cargo, we’ve got the right connections. Duluth Cargo Connect is a working partnership of Duluth Seaway Port Authority & Lake Superior Warehousing www The Great Lakes Towing Company McInnis Cement Inc. isn’t just dabbling. The new cement company is juggling multiple construction projects—all set for spring completion. As a result, the 2017 shipping season will include moving its cement products through the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway and beyond. The massive investment—a combination of public and private funds—involves a new limestone quarry, cement plant and deepwater terminal at Port-Daniel–Gascons in Quebec, terminals in Canada and the U.S., as well as costs related to building a startup company. By the end of March, McInnis will begin ramping up cement production and frequenting a destination terminal in Sainte- Catherine, Quebec, as well as operations in Providence, Rhode Island and the Bronx, New York. All the while, business development is ongoing to add terminals in the Great Lakes and along the U.S. East Coast. The location of an Ontario-based terminal is being considered. C O M M O D I T I E S GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 9 The massive investment—a combination of public and private funds—involves a new limestone quarry, cement plant and deepwater terminal at Port-Daniel–Gascons in Quebec, terminals in Canada and the U.S., as well as costs related to building a start-up company. A new cement source C$1.5 billion investment to build company, cement plant and terminals A Quick Look • The cement plant • A three-part business case • Sainte-Catherine terminal SOURCE: JERRY BIELICKI Detroit Wayne County Port Authority C O M M O D I T I E S 10 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com DETROIT/WAYNE COUNTY PORT AUTHORITY PROMOTING TRADE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH 130 E. Atwater, Detroit, Michigan 48226 Phone: (313) 259-5091 Fax: (313) 259-5093 www.portdetroit.com • Located on the border of United States and Canada. • Seaport related services • Remediation of Brownfield sites • Global transportation system. • Worldwide direct-water port terminals with complete cargo handling and stevedoring services. • Financing tools for improving infrastructure repair and development. • Public/private partnerships which create awareness for the maritime industry, job creation and economic growth. Current McInnis Locations McInnis is developing terminal sites to serve the Quebec/Ontario and Maritimes markets. Announcements for additional terminal locations are expected. SLSMC “When all the dust settles, we expect we will have six water-based terminals that can receive bulkers or pneumatic vessels,” said Jim Braselton, Senior Vice President, Marketing, Sales and Distribution for McInnis Cement. The heart of McInnis’ C$1.5 billion investment is the cement plant and deepwater terminal at Port-Daniel–Gascons. Using the latest technologies, the plant is expected to produce 2.2 million metric tons of cement annually and is said to be the first new plant to serve New England in more than 50 years. According to Braselton, cement sales will extend beyond the eastern seaboard to the western shores of Europe, Africa, South America, the Mediterranean and Texas. Ninety-five percent of the cement leaving the plant will move by ship. The decision to construct the plant on the Gaspe Peninsula was based on the land’s abundance of quality limestone and the quarry’s proximity to the water. Having 90 percent of the materials needed to produce cement onsite and a renewable power source will create competitive efficiencies for the company. While outbound cement will be the mainstay, McInnis will also have some inbound cargo. Committed to waterborne transportation, the company has also purchased a 15,000 metric ton deadweight bulk cement carrier which is being time-chartered by NovaAlgoma Cement Carriers Limited. The ship was built in 2011 and is being outfitted at a shipyard in China with a new cement unloading system and hybrid exhaust gas scrubber system capable of operating in freshwater and saltwater. (For additional vessel details, please go to page 33.) The cement plant. The new Port- Daniel–Gascons plant offers year-round shipping, is equipped for dual-fuel (coal or petcoke, adding biomass later) production and with other technology to minimize its environmental footprint. It meets the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. “No other plant in North America has this capability,” Braselton said, adding the project is the first major facility construction in the cement industry in 50 years. “The environmental footprint of this plant will be incomparable to any other plant in Canada and the United States. This plant is the plant of the future.” Commissioning the plant is underway. The Port-Daniel–Gascons plant includes the following features, which are displayed on the map on opposite page. • Hydroelectric power supply, enabling the company to use up to 40 percent less fuel per ton of cement than traditional plants • Long-term reserve quarry that offers easy access to limestone • Primary and secondary crushers with a capacity of 1,800 metric tons per hour • Vertical raw mill system • Five-stage kiln system with a production capacity of 6,000 metric tons a day • Three 40,000-metric-ton clinker silos and a 3,000-metric-ton transition silo • Three A-frame storage units with more than 150,000 metric tons of storage capacity for limestone, silica, alumina, iron, gypsum and solid fuel • Two identical vertical finish mills C O M M O D I T I E S GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 11 Using the latest technologies, the plant is expected to produce 2.2 million metric tons of cement annually. Ports of Indiana 12 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com • Four 30,000-metric-ton cement silos • Fully enclosed, product-specific conveyor system to transport cement from storage to the marine terminal at 1,400 metric tons per hour • A harbor-based maritime terminal with vessel capacity ranging from 5,000 metric tons to 65,000 metric tons “The use of hydropower and new technology at the plant, along with the naturally low-sulfur and low-mercury limestone, combine to give us an efficient process and a high-quality product,” Braselton said. “When we’re ready to integrate biofuels with the hydropower, we’ll have a double whammy in environmental efficiencies.” The cement plant will produce three types of Portland cement: low- and moderate- alkali and Type III. Technology will enable real-time adjustments during the manufacturing process to meet tight tolerances. Cement is made through a controlled chemical combination of calcium, aluminum, iron and other ingredients. When heated to high temperatures, they form a rock-like substance called clinker. When mixed with gypsum and ground into a fine power, cement is the result. A three-part business case. McInnis Cement’s infrastructure investment is based on differing trends in the United States and Canada. In the U.S., demand for cement is increasing as construction trends improve. Since the U.S. imports cement at all stages of the building cycle, McInnis plans to become a primary provider in eastern North America. According to Braselton, even at the bottom of a recent building cycle, in 2010-11, the U.S. imported 7 million metric tons of cement. At the top of such cycles, U.S. imports have hit over 30 million metric tons in a year. According to Portland Cement Association, 2015 saw a 3.5 percent growth in cement consumption in the United States. Growth rates in 2016 and 2017 are expected to be 5 and 5.7 percent, respectively. The Canadian business case involves providing alternatives for buyers. Consolidations of major players, such as Lafarge and Holcim and, more recently, Heidelberg and Italcementi have resulted in fewer cement sources. According to Braselton, independent buyers are looking for options. C O M M O D I T I E S Ninety-five percent of the cement leaving the plant will move by ship. McInnis constructs its new cement plant at Port-Daniel–Gascons. Ocean Group GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 13 The third issue prompting the McInnis investment is a combination of how aging infrastructure within the cement industry and intensifying environmental regulations are impacting producers. The privately held company views the two as creating a longawaited window of opportunity. In 1995, Guy Rousseau, the original promoter, proposed a cement plant for the same property. The company, Cimbec, couldn’t secure the necessary funding and the project went dormant. In December 2011, Beaudier Group purchased Cimbec and began to put finances and the latest technologies into what is now called McInnis Cement. Sainte-Catherine terminal. Construction of the terminal began mid-summer 2016. It is just one terminal McInnis plans to locate in the system to move cement from the Maritimes into the Great Lakes. The terminal sits on more than two acres along Hebert Boulevard. Attributes drawing McInnis to Sainte-Catherine include its centralized location, rail network flexibility to surrounding areas in Canada and the U.S. and proximity to Highways 15 and 30 and the Mercier Bridge. One of the most notable developments onsite has been the erection of two silos near the existing wharf. The terminal has created 30-40 construction jobs, with that number swelling to 150 for two weeks when the silos’ slipforms were placed. McInnis has signed a long-term lease with owner Trac-World Freight Services to use the terminal. The property includes a 4,000-foot wharf with a depth of 26.3 feet. “The service agreement with McInnis Cement allows our company to play a leading role, directly related to our expertise,” said Laurent Tourigny, President of Trac-World, which will handle logistics at the port. About 25 deliveries by the dedicated pneumatic self-unloading cement carrier are expected at the existing dock annually. Once the cement is offloaded, it will be moved by truck and rail to final destinations. The company plans to use the self-unloading vessel for Canadian deliveries and handy-sized bulkers utilizing shoreside equipment for loading and unloading at U.S. ports. “For now, the capacity of that vessel being refurbished in China will be enough capacity to start with,” Braselton said. “Later, we will have the ability to add another pneumatic vessel as we ramp up over five years.” In addition to the plant and terminal, McInnis is finalizing a $22 million distribution center at Port of Providence in Rhode Island. The 125,000-foot terminal there can load about 100 trucks and 10 railcars per day with cement. The facility will serve the New England sector. McInnis also has a warehouse in the Bronx, New York. Announcements will be made as other terminal locations are determined, but Braselton said the company is actively seeking to partner with existing ports which offer benefits similar to that of Sainte-Catherine. Janenne Irene Pung . C O M M O D I T I E S Committed to waterborne transportation, the company has also purchased a 15,000 metric ton deadweight bulk cement carrier which is being time chartered by NovaAlgoma Cement Carriers Limited. MARINE INGENUITY Our range of marine services is the most comprehensive in the industry. Whatever your needs in ship construction and repair, dredging, specialized equipment rental, harbour towing or marine transportation, our expertise and creativity will be useful in providing you with ingenious solutions tailored to your needs. WE ARE PROPELLED BY OUR MARITIME PASSION GROUPOCEAN.COM The Great Lakes Seaway Partnership I N T E R V I E W Great Lakes/Seaway Review: After three decades with CSL Group, what prompted your retirement at this time? Jones: I have been at CSL for a long time and have seen it go through many changes, challenges and successes. I have loved every minute of it. However, time marches on. I am ready for the next phase in my life and it is time to turn over the reins to the next generation of leaders. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: Briefly describe the state of the company and the domestic shipping industry when you joined CSL in 1985. Jones: The ’80s were a tough time in shipping worldwide and especially on the Great Lakes. The decline of the “rust belt” in the United States was resulting in a reduction in Great Lakes cargoes and the domestic players had very few growth prospects. In 1985, CSL only had two ships which were capable of operating outside the Great Lakes. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: During your tenure with the company, you are said to have organized a Montreal team to expand the company internationally. Please explain why and how this transition occurred. Jones: CSL’s expansion into international shipping was a team effort and I was very honored to be part of that team. When the Right Honorable Paul Martin acquired the company in 1981, he immediately recognized that growth could only come by expanding outside the Great Lakes. He started to assemble a team that shared that vision and was capable of making it happen. The early years (1984-91) were difficult. We did not have enough ships to provide a consistent, reliable service outside the Lakes and the international shipping markets did not yet understand the value selfunloading ships could bring to their marine operations. We needed to have tough skins to handle constant rejection and we needed to evangelize the benefits of self-unloaders. Luckily, all of us who were involved in this program were true believers and it is easy to sell something you believe in. In 1992, CSL set up CSL International as a separate shipping company to focus exclusively on developing its international operations. The small team that set up shop in Boston was incredibly committed to the vision of bringing Canadian-style self-unloading service to the international marketplace. We were very entrepreneurial and our efforts laid the groundwork for what eventually A true leader Rod Jones shares parting words for his company and to an industry While Rod Jones and The CSL Group may seem synonymous to many, the CEO’s retirement is in process. After 30 years with the company, Jones is venturing into the next phase of life with his wife by his side for a less demanding schedule. Between now and March 31, 2017, Jones is working alongside Louis Martel, who is transitioning from CSL International and Executive Vice-President for CSL Group, to Chief Executive Officer of the privately owned company. The two have worked together in various capacities for nearly two decades, since Martel was hired as a naval architect in 1997. “Rod has stood out as an inclusive, visionary and modern leader who leaves behind a sound company and lasting legacy built on authentic values and a commitment to people, safety and the environment,” said Paul Martin, Chair of the CSL Board at the announcement. Following in his father’s footsteps, Jones devoted his entire career to shipping. Born in Cleveland, Ohio and raised in the Bahamas, he spent his summers on the Great Lakes as a deckhand and acquired a passion for shipping as an officer in the U.S. Navy. He then went on to study business at Dartmouth University, where he earned the distinction of Edward Tuck Scholar. During his three decades at CSL, Jones worked with employees around the world to transform a Great Lakes-focused shipping business into an international operator of self-unloading ships. Under his leadership, CSL expanded beyond Canada and the Americas to Australia, Asia and Europe. In 1992, CSL set up CSL International to manage its fledgling business outside of Canada. At the time, the company had four ships trading outside the Great Lakes. By 2008, the non- Canadian business had grown to over 30 ships. As President, Jones was responsible for the commercial, technical and financial operations of international operations. When promoted to CEO in 2008, Jones became responsible for all global operations, with the presidents of the Canadian and International business segments reporting to him. Prior to his departure, Jones has taken time to offer his input on a series of questions regarding his life, career and the future of the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway shipping industry. GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 15 Rod Jones Canada Steamship Lines PHOTO: MARC DEASE Clean. Green. Safe. Smart. Cutting edge performance for a sustainable future on the Great Lakes. 2 0 1 6 cslships.com BULK SHIP OPERATOR OF THE YEAR I N T E R V I E W GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 17 became a very substantial and well respected international shipping pool. I had the great fortune of being part of that project. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: What are the long-term benefit(s) of becoming an international shipping company? Jones: In my view, unless a company is growing, it is likely to shrivel and decline. The CSL of the 1980s was stagnant on the Great Lakes and the push into international shipping enabled the company to grow. Good people want to be part of a growing enterprise. They want to see that the company will support their innovative and out-of-the-box thinking. The push into saltwater has enabled CSL to attract and retain some of the best in the business. It also provided some diversification of cash flows and mitigation of risks. In years when the Great Lakes market has been slow, we have been pleased to have stronger results in Asia or elsewhere. In some years, the international business has been weak and we have been bailed out by our home Great Lakes market. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: When you were appointed President & CEO, what became your No. 1 priority and why? Jones: When I was appointed CEO in 2008, we were at the tail end of the commodity- boom years, but the bloom was quickly coming off the rose. Growth was leveling off in almost all of our business segments and we had to quickly reposition CSL to survive in the new “bust cycle” reality. However, the No. 1 priority was to rebuild CSL’s leadership team to ensure we would have the talent, drive and leadership skills to help us navigate those very rocky shoals. For the 20 years prior to my appointment, CSL’s leadership team had been remarkably stable. The same 10 to 15 people had guided the company through its growth phase and were now all getting close to retirement. While we had some very good young CSLers who were ready to assume some new leadership vacancies, we did not have enough. We had to go out and bring in new complementary talent to round out the team. I spent most of my first few years helping to build that new team. The current leadership team at CSL has more depth and talent than ever before and I am proud to be associated with this group. One of the first things the new leadership team focused on was safety. Working closely with our shipboard staffs, CSL implemented its SafePartners safety brand and program in 2011. I am pleased to say it has brought about a sea change in safety mindset at CSL. Our first priority is always to keep everyone at CSL, and all who we interact with, safe. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: What has been your greatest trial while at CSL? Jones: Nothing comes to mind. I have faced my share of trials and tribulations over the years. There have been many highs and a few lows—and certainly a few pressurefilled days. However, I have never once wanted to stay away or hide from the heat. When you are surrounded by good people who know their jobs and care about the company’s values and reputation, it is pretty easy to stay focused on what really matters and not let the little stuff get to you. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: What will always remain a point of pride from your time at CSL? Jones: CSL is a private company and we do not disclose our financial results. However, our owners are only one of the major stakeholders at CSL and over the last three or four years we have begun to disclose our non-financial results to our wider stakeholder group. These include our safety results, our environmental performance, our employee programs and our community involvement. I am extremely proud of the fact that while CSL has been financially successful over the last 25 years or so, it has also continued to improve its commitment to the community and to sustainability. CSL is a company all of its employees, customers and other stakeholders can be proud to be associated with. I sure am. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: Knowing trials are being done on unmanned/autonomous vessels, how do you anticipate this technology will impact system fleets? Jones: The “internet of things” is hitting the world by storm and the shipping industry will be caught up in that wave. CSL sees many opportunities to enhance our efficiency, improve our competitiveness and service our customers more efficiently in this new world. While I expect computer-aided navigation will be a wonderful tool to help our seafarers operate safely and avoid accidents, I expect fully autonomous vessels will not make major inroads in the short sea shipping industry in my lifetime (and I am still young). Humans still matter. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: How can the Great Lakes/Seaway shipping industry better work together to grow shipping in the system, even amid competition? Jones: Competition is very fierce on the Great Lakes and in general—which is a good thing. It ensures that the industry will remain relevant and efficient for our customers and we all need our customers to succeed. It certainly forces all of us to reduce costs and improve efficiency. The problem we have is that cargo demand fluctuates wildly and the industry needs to have some swing capacity to meet the peak demand. Unfortunately, this is really inefficient and it keeps some old, higher-cost ships around long after their proper economic life. I expect that over the next few years, we will see a further weeding out of some of the least efficient capacity and the remaining fleet should be employed more optimally. A professional progression 1972-74: Deckhand on U.S.-flag lake carriers during college summer vacations. 1976-80: Officer in the U.S. Navy. Attended Officer Candidate School in Newport Rhode Island then sailed as Main Propulsion Assistant on the USS Fresno, homeported in San Diego, California and deployed to the Pacific. Qualified as Officer of the Deck, Engineering Officer of the Watch and Command Duty Officer. Final rank attained: Lieutenant Junior Grade. 1980-82: Vessel Operator Navios Shipping, New York, responsible for daily operating instructions to one third of Navios fleet. 1984-85: Director New Business Development, Van Ommeren Shipping Greenwich, Connecticut, responsible for identifying potential shipping and trading acquisitions in the U.S. for this Netherlands-based shipping company. 1985-90: Director of Marketing, Canada Steamship Lines (CSL), Montreal, Canada, responsible for finding international opportunities for CSL’s fleet of self-unloading vessels which at that time were primarily operating on the Great Lakes. 1990-91: Vice President, Jones Bardelmeier and Company (JBC), Nassau, Bahamas, responsible for aiding the international shipping consulting firm in assisting major industrial shippers to plan shipping strategies. 1992-08: President, CSL International Inc., Beverly, Massachusetts. 2008-17: Chief Executive Officer, CSL Group Montreal, Canada. Ashton Marine 18 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com and the shipping industry we participate in. I am extremely pleased with the board’s decision to appoint him to this role. His multidimensional background in technical operations, international shipping, CSL Canada and as head of CSL’s global safety and technical services departments has given him the perspective and breadth of knowledge necessary for success in his new role. Over the transitional period, we are working together very closely to ensure there is a smooth handover. I tend to focus on the current day-to-day issues and Louis is looking at how best to prepare CSL for the longer term. I confess I get a little sad every once in a while as I hear them planning new projects for 2017 and realize I will no longer be a part of it, but I know CSL is in good hands. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: What are your retirement plans? Jones: So far, my wife, Joanne, and I haven’t really made any plans. We will definitely take some time off next year to relax. I can’t imagine being on a vacation and not checking my email every 30 minutes to find out if we won a contract or had a problem. We expect we will spend part of the year in Canada and part in the U.S.A. Eventually, I hope to find some part-time business venture or board-related activity to keep me fresh and challenged. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: Please share any departing words you may have for the industry before entering the next phase of life. Jones: The greatest enjoyment I have taken from my almost 40-year career in shipping has been my interactions with the wonderful people who have also chosen this interesting career. I am sure there are great people in most industries, but in shipping, we all seem to have a shared love of ships, an appreciation for global trade flows and an understanding that the world is actually a very small place. So many people in shipping love their jobs, their companies, their ships and/or their teams. It is so much more fun to be surrounded by people who love their jobs. Of course, it is not universal and just like any industry, we have our ups and downs, but I must say shipping people tend to be real, down-to-earth, not full of themselves and proud of their contribution to the health of national and global economies. There are many different viewpoints and I surely have enjoyed being a part of it. I hope the industry can continue to focus on telling its story to the general public and make sure all citizens appreciate the vital role we play in keeping trade and industry operating smoothly. . Great Lakes/Seaway Review: What issues can best be addressed through a greater partnership? Jones: I will have to leave this one to the new team of Louis Martel, Allister Paterson and Bill Bisset to sort out. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: As someone who has witnessed trade fluctuations for years, what changes need to be made to better meet market demand? Jones: If I knew the answer to this, I would be starting a hedge fund and investing in the solution big time! The world economy is cyclical and I don’t think it’s likely to change anytime soon. What we have to do is get better at managing our businesses through the ups and downs of the cycles and this will require more discipline from all participants. Great Lakes/Seaway Review: Please describe how you’re working with your successor, Louis Martel, between now and your March 31 retirement date. Jones: I have known and worked with Louis for almost 20 years. He is a tireless advocate for CSL, our employees, our customers I N T E R V I E W SHIP ASSISTS • TOWING ICE BREAKING • SALVAGE PROJECT CARGO MOVES 329 West Circle Drive, North Muskegon, MI 49445 For competitive rates call Phil Andrie at (231) 720-0868 or email phil@ashtontugs.com www.ashtontugs.com Because of their latitude, the Great Lakes normally freeze in the winter. Bulk shipping is typically halted during the winter months because ice covers the harbors and Lakes and the bulk cargo freezes into an unmanageable mass. In the early 20th Century, vessels had less power and the hematite ore and coal froze. Bulkers stopped operating in early December and started again in April. In 1977, under pressure from vessel operators, Congress authorized government support to demonstrate the feasibility of year-round navigation through the 1977-78 winters. The locks were kept open. Ice buoys were put into position for winter navigation. Coast Guard icebreakers led single file convoys of ships through the ice fields in daylight hours only. Coast Guard airplanes photographed the extent of the ice fields and the I C E B R E A K I N G GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 19 Novel concepts Breaking barriers in designing a new generation of icebreakers JOSEPH P. FISCHER President Bay Engineering, Inc. This story began as a paper presented at the Great Lakes and Great Rivers Section of SNAME in October. It details an idea for a 105-foot-wide, multihulled icebreaker that can break a track the same width as the large bulk carriers on the Great Lakes. The space between the hulls is fitted with a pan conveyor system that removes the broken ice between the hulls and discharges it off to the side of the icebreaker. The author suggests an R&D program be launched to test the concepts presented. Spring breakout leads the fleet through Lake Superior. SOURCE: WALTER BARKLEY • Today’s icebreakers • Deficiencies and problems • Proposing a catamaran • Inclined and shuttle conveyors • Proposing a trimaran • Icebreaker multitasking • A new icebreaker program A Quick Look DNV-GL broken tracks and made daily reports. The ships, not ice-classed and not intended to operate in such ice, were beat up. The union crews, accustomed to winter vacations in a warm climate, did not support the schedule. After the possibility of yearround navigation was demonstrated, the government essentially said if the industry wanted year-round navigation, it could pay for it. There were no takers. The shipping companies went back to the normal winter lay-up, as dictated by reasonable men and the weather. It is difficult to contract for hauling of X number of tons a year if you don’t know how long the shipping season will be. By agreement between the Lake Carriers’ Association and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the locks at Sault Ste. Marie are closed from January 15 to March 24. Vessels operating before and after the closing are normally operated in ice. Vessels operating in Lake Michigan, Lake Huron and Lake Erie are not dependent upon the locks and operate as long as is practical in the winter season. Coast Guard icebreakers are employed to break a track in the main shipping channels for the commercial vessels as their resources permit. Today’s icebreakers. The original Mackinaw, WAGB 83, built in 1942, is now retired and has been replaced by a new Mackinaw, WLBB 30, built in 2008. Note that in 1942, the ships were narrower or about the same beam as the icebreaker (see Table 1). The U.S. Maritime L6 classes of vessels, built during World War II, were only 60 feet wide. Post-War vessels up into the 1950s were in the 72-foot range of beam. The new Mackinaw is only 58.5 feet of beam, but its Azipods propulsion system is claimed to make a wider track. In addition to the Coast Guard icebreakers, there are privately owned commercial tugs capable of breaking ice. The private owners charge a fee for this service and are primarily hired for work in harbors and docks not part of main shipping channels. Deficiencies and problems. Following the construction of the Poe Lock in 1966, a new class of vessels was built with a wide beam of 92 to 105 feet. When such a vessel follows the track of a narrower beam icebreaker, the shoulders of the bow strike unbroken ice, which may impede or stop progress. The unbroken ice may even cause structural damage. This may be solved by having the icebreaker make a second pass, slowing the progress of the vessel. I C E B R E A K I N G 20 www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com TABLE 1 U.S. Great Lakes Icebreakers VESSEL MACKINAW MACKINAW ALDER MOBILE BAY Number WAGB 83 WLBB 30 WLB WTGB-103 Length (feet) 290 240 225 140 Beam (feet) 74.3 58.5 46.0 37.5 Draft (feet) 19.5 16.0 13.0 13.0 Displ. (long tons) 5,252 3,500 2,000 690 Power (hp) 10,000 9,119 6,200 2,500 Delivery (year) 1942 2008 2004 1979 SOURCE: BAY ENGINEERING, INC. Wartsila A second problem involves navigating in ice after it has been broken and refreezes in the track of the vessels. The broken ice usually passes under the ship to resurface behind the vessel. This broken ice has lost its insulating snow cover and refreezes rapidly and may be as strong as unbroken ice, resulting in a difficult track to maintain. A third problem with current icebreakers is their inability to clear slush ice from the channel. In some years, the spring break-up of ice in Lake Huron clogs the upper end of the St. Clair River. This slush ice may extend from the surface all the way to the river bottom, making passage very difficult. Vessels dependent upon outside water for cooling find their seachests clogged and engines shut down because of overheating. The current solution involves icebreakers “whittling away” the slush ice at the downstream location to flush it downriver. Proposing a catamaran. A wide-beam, catamaran icebreaker can be used to break a track for wide-beam commercial vessels operating in ice. The current beam of commercial vessels is too wide for a monohull icebreaker without exceeding normal proportions and causing excessive power requirements. I C E B R E A K I N G GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW October-December, 2016 21 This idea proposes two hulls, each with a molded beam of 40 feet and a molded space between the hulls of 25 feet, matching the 105 feet of molded beam of the large bulk carriers. Finding what you really need is only possible when you have the best marine offering on earth to choose from. Wärtsilä is the market leader …………………………………………………….. gas solutions and ensuring environmental compliance …………………………………………………….. Our global service network offers support when and where you need it. Read more at www.wartsila.com WÄRTSILÄ: YOUR SHORTER ROUTE WHAT YOU NEED WE DON’T OFFER WHAT WE HAVE BUT The conveyor at the aft of the conceptual icebreaker would deposit ice back into the lake. 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Phone: 231-642-4622 The draft of a monohull vessel would be much smaller, restricting the propeller diameter and reducing its efficiency. The beam/draft ratio would be too large resulting in a “pumpkin seed” hull. This idea proposes two hulls, each with a molded beam of 40 feet and a molded space between the hulls of 25 feet, matching the 105 feet of molded beam of the large bulk carriers. The space between the hulls enables a conveyor system to be deployed to pick up broken and slush ice and cast it to the sides of the track. The hulls of the catamaran are asymmetric so as not to squeeze the broken ice between the two hulls and increase the ice load on the inboard side of each hull. This concept is not set on any one type of propulsion system, but favors a diesel-electric system. A larger propeller diameter is made possible by having a tunnel stern nearly symmetrical in the run. The sides of the tunnel are designed to extend beneath the ice to reduce the amount of broken ice entering the tunnel while making a turn. A single rudder is located behind each propeller for steering. Tunnel thrusters for dynamic position keeping may not be suitable for a multihulled vessel. Pump jet thrusters may be considered. Other arrangements are possible. A General Arrangement and Lines Plan of the catamaran are shown in Bay Engineering’s drawings, but have not been made public because of pending patents. Inclined and shuttle conveyors. One consideration for a conveyor system is an inclined conveyor, which is used to pick up the broken ice between the hulls and discharge it to a transverse shuttle conveyor, which can extend outboard of the vessel’s beam and cast the broken ice away from the track. The inclined conveyor is stowed in the horizontal position and secured by structural stops. In ice removal operations, it is lowered so the forward conveyor is just below the ice being removed. The speed of the surface of the conveyor should be equal to the speed of the vessel divided by the cosine of the conveyor angle at a minimum so as not to have ice pile up on the conveyor. A shuttle conveyor is an inclined conveyor that has gravity discharge to a transverse, horizontal shuttle conveyor. The shuttle conveyor is similar in function to the transverse conveyors found on the Roger Blough, Stewart J. Cort and Edgar B. Speer. The shuttle conveyor is normally stowed inside of the vessel with room to perform maintenance on each outboard side. Its construction is nearly the same as the inclined conveyor. For ice removal, it is extended outboard on either side of the vessel so its inboard end can still receive the ice transferred from the inclined conveyor. The surface speed of the shuttle conveyor is the same or faster than that of the inclined conveyor. The conveyor system will be very wet in a freezing environment. Water is permitted to run through the conveyors, but must be drained to deter ice buildup. The feasibility of Icepholic Coating, as covered in Michigan Engineering, March 2016, needs to be studied. The ship should be provided with water heater(s) and/or auxiliary steam boiler(s) for fixed and portable wash down to keep the ice buildup from stopping the operation. Proposing a trimaran. A wide-beam icebreaker can also have the hull form of a trimaran. In this design, the center or main hull would be symmetric and have a molded beam of 40 feet. The two side hulls would be asymmetric and have a molded beam of 20 feet each, leaving a molded space between the hulls of 12.5 feet on each side. As is common practice on trimarans, the outboard hulls are farther aft than the center hull to clear the bow wave generated by the center hull. The Bay Engineering design for this option again uses a diesel electric propulsion system, with each hull powered by a propeller. A system having 50 percent of the propulsion power in the center hull and 25 percent of power in each side hull is offered. Rudders would probably be used on the two outboard hulls only. For this design, the ice conveyors would be similar to that of the catamaran. There are two inclined conveyors, each about 12 feet wide in lieu of a single conveyor with two 12-foot-wide sections. There are two shuttle conveyors, each 12 feet wide and each extending outward beyond the hull on its perspective side. The proposed construction is similar but with different dimensions. Icebreaker multitasking. Even the government cannot afford to spend millions of dollars on a vessel to be utilized as an icebreaker for a few weeks in a year. It must be capable of other

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