Vol.47 No.3 JAN‑MAR 2019

new Soo Lock construction . Vessel traffic management system . The 2018 season . Blockchain basics DEDICATION Throughout Interlake Steamship’s successful history,onething has never changed–the company’s dedication toproviding superior customerservice. Interlake builds on its past by looking ahead every day – tochanging customer needs,to engineering innovation,to personnel training,to safety upgrades. Ensuring amodern,com.petitive,well-maintained fleet operated by knowledgeable shore-side staff and experienced vessel crews means that Interlake’s customers receive safe and reliable cargo delivery. Interlake is committed to using yesterday as abenchmark to be exceeded tomorrow. Great Lakes transportation is ourbusiness,ouronly business. Let usdeliver for you. The Art of Logistics. Your business and today’s supply chains expect more than haphazard dependability, cryptic scheduling, and a sea of broken promises. Avoid the runaround. Our accomplished staff and premier vessels are at the ready to deliver, backed by more than 2 billion tons worth of cargo experience. Bulk may be our business, but unsurpassed service is what we sell. Leave the art of logistics to the industry leader -Great Lakes Fleet. cn.ca/greatlakesfleet ThE InTErnaTIOnaL MarITIME MaGaZInE OF ThE GrEaT LaKES/ST. LaWrEncE SEaWay SySTEM VOLUME 47 JanUary-March, 2019 nUMBEr 3 BUSInESS anD EDITOrIaL OFFIcE 221 Water Street Boyne city, Michigan 49712 USa (800) 491-1760 FaX: (866) 906-3392 harbor@harborhouse.com www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com EDITOrIaL anD BUSInESS STaFF Jacques LesStrang Publisher Emeritus Michelle cortright Publisher Janenne Irene Pung Editor cris Shankleton creative Director Jen Shock Production Manager Tina Felton Business Manager carol Ochs circulation Manager aDVErTISInG DEParTMEnT Kathy Booth account Manager rex cassidy account Manager James Fish Senior account Manager Patricia a. rumpler account Manager Ellen Trimper account Manager William W. Wellman Senior account Manager candi Wynn account Executive EDITOrIaL aDVISOry BOarD John D. Baker, President, Great Lakes District Council, International Longshoremen’s Association; Mark Barker, President, The Interlake Steamship Company; Dale Bergeron, Maritime Extension Educator, Minnesota Sea Grant; David Bolduc, Executive Director, Green Marine; Joe Cappel, Vice President of Business Development, Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority; Steven A. Fisher, Executive Director, American Great Lakes Ports Association; Marc Gagnon, Director, Government Affairs and Regulatory Compliance, Fednav Limited; Tim Heney, Chief Executive Officer, Thunder Bay Port Authority; Peter Kakela, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University; Paul LaMarre, III, Port Director, Port of Monroe; Kevin McMonagle, Vice President-Operations, American Steamship Company; Allister Paterson, Executive Vice President & Chief Operating Officer, CSL Group; Wayne Smith, Honorary Director, Chamber of Marine Commerce; Joseph P. Starck, Jr., President, The Great Lakes Towing Company; James H.I. Weakley, President, Lake Carriers’ Association; Wendy Zatylny, President, Association of Canadian Port Authorities. SUBScrIPTIOnS – (800) 491-1760 Or www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com Published quarterly. One year $32.00; two years $53.00; three years $75.00. One year print & digital edition $38.00. Foreign: One year $47.00; two years $68.00; three years $100.00. One year print & digital edition $53.00. One year digital edition $20.00. Mobile edition available on the iTunes store. Back issues available for $7.50. Payable in U.S. funds. article reprints are also available. reprints and scans produced by others not permitted. ISSn 0037-0487 SrDS classifications: 84, 115c, 148 Great Lakes/Seaway Review and Great Laker are published quarterly. Postmaster: Send address changes to Great Lakes/Seaway Review, Great Laker, 221 Water Street, Boyne city, Michigan 49712 USa. © 2019 harbor house Publishers, Inc., Boyne city, Michigan. all rights reserved. no article or portion of same may be reproduced without written permission of publisher. AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS PRINT DIGITAL MOBILE Between issues of Great Lakes/Seaway Review, stay current with our free news service, Digital Dateline, at www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com/digdateline/ JANUARY-MARCH 2019 GREAT LAKES/SEAWAY REVIEW COVER: Bulk sugar is unloaded at the Port of Toronto. Photo: Norm Betts GREAT LAKER COVER: Layers of ice line Lake Erie. Photo: Ed Bansek LOCKS Working the plan 9 TECHNOLOGY Dock-to-dock precision 13 THE 2018 SEASON Big & bulky The results are in 18 23 LOCKS Icy improvements 36 TECHNOLOGY Easing the ships in 39 SHIPBUILDING Propelling shipbuilding forward 41 TECHNOLOGY Blockchain basics 47 From regulation to realization 51 Delivering lowest total cost of ownership 55 DEPARTMENTS Dateline 5 Guest Editorial 35 From the Advisory Board 45 On the Radar 72 TRAINING & RECRUITMENT The perfect pairing 60 MARITIME PHOTOGRAPHY Winter layers 63 GREAT LAKES PEOPLE The Plumb archives 65 MEET THE FLEET Classic beauty 69 LOCKS HISTORY A larger lock at the Soo? 70 SAVE SAVE TIME & MONEY DIRECT ACCESS TRADING IN BULK, BREAK BULK, SEAMLESS SUPPLY INTO ALL OF NORTH OVER 50 GLOBAL LIQUID & CHAIN WITH A AMERICA MARKETS SPECIAL CARGO CONNECTED NETWORK SIMPLE. COMPETITIVE. CONNECTED. EUROPE U.S. MID-WEST SPECIAL CARGO TO TO ICON/BADGE U.S. MID-WEST NORTH AFRICA SHIP WITH US TODAY DaTELInE Great Lakes ice cover up from last season Ice on the Great Lakes grew rapidly in the second half of January, fueled by a weather pattern that saw temperatures dip several degrees below normal. By the first week of March, total ice cover across the Great Lakes was 74.2 percent—up from 39.9 percent at the same time in 2018. a 2019 breakdown by Lake: • Lake Superior had 90.3 percent coverage, up from 75 percent in 2018. • Lake Michigan went from 14.6 percent in March 2018 to 41.1 percent in 2019. • Lake huron jumped from 27.3 to 85.3 percent over the year. • Lake Erie recorded the biggest increase, from 20.2 percent in 2018 to 93.6 percent in 2019, a nearly 74 point difference. • Lake Ontario followed the pattern, up from just 7.8 percent in March 2018 to nearly 30 percent in 2019. as U.S. and canadian icebreakers began the spring breakout in late March, coverage remained above 35 percent. . Funding for new Soo Lock starts with the President The U.S. President’s fiscal year 2020 bud.get allocates $75.33 million to construct the second Poe-sized lock. The funds will partial.ly pay for the approach walls and continued design of the lock chamber, according to Marie Strum, chief, Engineering & Technical Services, U.S. army corps of Engineers De.troit District. Funding details show: • $62,031,000 to initiate construction of the upstream approach walls • $8,355,000 for continuation of the lock chamber design • $4,947,000 for completion of the up.stream channel deepening construction For more information, visit www.lre.usace. army.mil/abouthighlighted-Projects/new_ Soo_Lock/ and see page 9. . New regular column launches In recognition of the varied experience and insight of Great Lakes/Seaway Review’s Ed.itorial advisory Board, we are premiering a new department—From the advisory Board. In each edition, a member of the board will share his or her viewpoint on topics impact.ing the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway sys.tem shipping industry. The column launches on page 45 with Joe cappel, Vice President of Business Develop.ment for the Toledo-Lucas county Port au.thority, addressing the importance of main.taining a long-term vision for system success and the port’s relevance to the local region. The Editorial advisory Board is a collec.tion of industry experts specializing in fleets, ports, shipyards, advocacy, research and aca.demia. To view a list of our members, please see page 2. . System shipowners invest millions in fleet modernization Over the winter, shipowners from both sides of the border made major investments in the U.S. and canadian fleets. repair and investments for the canadian fleets totals an estimated c$90 million, ac.cording to the chamber of Marine com.merce. Projects included steel replacement and coatings, five-year drydock inspections, communication and energy efficiency up.grades, standard maintenance checks and an.nual inspections. U.S.-flag lakers received $70 million in maintenance and modernization, according to Lake carriers’ association. The work ranged from engine overhauls to out-of-the.water hull inspections to installation of state-of-the-art radars and other navigation equipment. . Port City Marine readies converted ATB Commander, a 495-foot by 72-foot freight barge, has been de.livered back to Port city Marine Services in Muskegon, Michi.gan after undergoing extensive work at Fincantieri Bay Ship.building. The 21-month conversion included installing new cargo holds, trunk deck and bow and a new cargo-unloading system. combined with its tug, the vessel operates as an articu.lated tug-barge unit. “The costly challenge of expanding Jones act-compliant dry bulk capacity created a lengthy deliberation in our camp and with our customer,” said chuck canestraight, President of Sand Prod.ucts corporation, owner of Port city Marine Services. “Our his.tory with Fincantieri Bay Shipbuilding, and knowledge of their well-proven skill set, gave our customer, lender and board of direc.tors the comfort to approach such a major conversion project.” . GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 Algoma continues fleet expansion with additional product tanker algoma Tankers Limited (aTL), part of algoma central corporation, purchased a 2010-built product tanker, the eighth ship in algoma’s Great Lakes-based tanker fleet. The 16,512 dwt vessel is being renamed the Algoterra. The company took ownership in March in Europe and she joins the fleet in april. “The ship will be the youngest tanker we operate and, as our newest ship, she will be the workhorse of the aTL fleet for many years to come,” said Gregg ruhl, algoma central President and cEO. The acquisition of a second tanker vessel in just over three months demonstrates algo.ma’s willingness to invest in meeting the growing demand for marine-based transpor.tation of petroleum products. “With a long-term contract in place with a strong counterparty, we expect this acquisi.tion to be accretive to earnings upon the ship’s arrival in canada,” said Peter Winkley, algo.ma’s chief Financial Officer. as the 2019 season begins, algoma is also operating the Algoma Conveyor, a new 740-foot self-unloading dry-bulk carrier en route from china. She joins the 18 vessels of algoma’s dry-bulk fleet for the navigation season. . Bay Engineering makes leadership transition Fred Koller, P.E., has been promoted to President of Bay Engineering, Inc., a naval ar.chitecture, marine engineering and design firm in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. The company has long been led by Joseph Fred M. Koller Fischer, who has owned and operated the firm since 1996. he remains ac.tive as chairman. In addition to Koller, Travis Martin, P.E. has been promoted to Vice President of Bay Engineering. . Potential port consolidation for Oshawa, Hamilton The Government of canada intends to amalgamate the Oshawa and hamilton port authorities to form a new entity, according to the honorable Marc Garneau, Minister of Transport. aligning with the Transportation 2030 vision, the merger seeks to improve port efficiencies and planning in the region. The Oshawa and hamilton port authorities carry similar commodities including steel, project cargo and bulk cargo such as fertilizers, asphalt and grain. cargo handled at both ports produces over c$6 billion in economic activity and 4,500 direct and indirect jobs. . Auxo Investment acquires Andrie LLC auxo Investment Partners is partnering with the andrie family with an investment in andrie LLc, a Michigan-based Jones act transportation company specializing in mov.ing liquid asphalt, cement, light oil petroleum and calcium chloride in the Great Lakes. The deal marks auxo’s sixth acquisition in 16 months and builds on the firm’s December 2017 acquisition of M/G Transport Services, a leading dry-bulk transportation and logistics company based in new Orleans. andrie, founded in 1988, works extensively with large global customers. It has grown from a fleet of four to 19 vessels with a current cargo capacity of more than 125,000 tons. The com.pany’s workforce ranges from 25 to 150. “This company has been a big part of my family since its earliest days, so deciding to bring in a new partner wasn’t a decision we took lightly,” said Stan andrie Jr., who will re.main cEO. “But I was struck by auxo Invest.ment Partners’ leadership, Midwest roots and strong ties to the marine industry as a result of its ownership of M/G Transport Services. not only is this new partnership a cultural fit that will preserve the legacy of what we’ve ac.complished, it’s one that will position us for strong growth in the years ahead.” andrie was founded by Barbara andrie, mother of the current cEO. . Rand Logistics renames James L. Kuber rand Logistics, Inc. is renaming a long.time Great Lakes barge, the James M. Kuber. The U.S.-flagged self-unloading barge is sail.ing this season as Maumee. as part of an ar.ticulated tug-barge (aTB), Maumee is fitting out with tug M/V Victory. rand purchased Kuber/Victory in Febru.ary 2011 from KK Integrated Shipping. The aTB is 815-feet overall, has a beam of 70 feet and a capacity of about 25,500 net tons—op.erating with a crew of 13. cargo carried on the Maumee includes iron ore, grain, stone, coal and other bulk commodities. The barge was originally built as a straight deck bulker in 1953 by Great Lakes Engineer.ing Works in river rouge, Michigan. She received a 260-foot self-unloading system in 1982. In 2008, the vessel completed a conver.sion to a new articulated self-unloading notched barge. Keeping with the company’s tradition of naming vessels after native north american waterways and regions, the name Maumee ref.erences the Maumee river. The Port of Toledo is located at the mouth of the Maumee river, where the vessel will frequent carrying vari.ous commodities. Maumee is also a historical fleet name, referencing the M/V Maumee, a self-unloader retired several years ago. . CMC supports recommendation to consider lengthening Seaway season The Standing committee on Transport, Infrastructure and communities, in its Inter.im report on Establishing a canadian Trans.portation and Logistics Strategy, is recom.mending the Government of canada explore ways to optimize the shipping season of the St. Lawrence Seaway to transport goods with.in central canada. The government needs to be part of the conversation on what additional infrastructure and icebreaking resources would be required for an extension. Lengthening the shipping season on the Seaway by even a few weeks would addition.ally help many steel, mining and grain custom.ers export more goods and/or bring efficiencies to their operations, according to the cMc. . MAY 6-8 Great Lakes Economic Forum Cleveland, Ohio www.greatlakeseconomicforum.com 6-9 AISTech 2019 Association for Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition David L. Lawrence Convention Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania www.aist.org 15-17 North American Rail Shippers Association Westin Riverwalk Hotel San Antonio, Texas www.railshippers.com 21-23 Breakbulk Europe 2019 Bremen, Germany www.breakbulk.com 26-29 Canadian Transportation Research Forum Annual Conference Pinnacle Harbourfront Hotel Vancouver, British Columbia www.ctrf.ca 29-30 26th Annual Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River Ecosystem Symposium OPG Visitor’s Centre, Cornwall, Ontario www.riverinstitute.ca JUNE 5-7 Greentech 2019 Westin Cleveland Downtown Hotel Cleveland, Ohio www.green-marine.org 5-7 Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative Annual Meeting Blue Harbor Conference Center Sheboygan, Wisconsin www.glslcities.org ADVANCED SHIPPINGAND HANDLING CSLSHIPS.COM Photo CSL Niagara: Christine Douglas LOCKS Working the plan Army Corps itemizes steps in constructing the new Poe-sized lock With or without appropria.tions, the U.S. army corps of Engineers must be ready to act. In the case of building a new Soo Lock, it’s had decades to prepare. With 2018 being a year of break.throughs for funding the Great Lakes navi.gation System, including $52 million com.mitted by the State of Michigan and $32 million in federal funds by the corps, building the new Poe-sized lock continues. construction began with a ground.breaking 10 years ago and $32 million in.vestment in: design and planning efforts, downstream channel deepening and con.struction of the Sabin Lock cofferdam. With funding commitments resuming, completion of the new lock is expected to take place over the next decade and cost nearly $1 billion. The lock will provide the long-awaited second option for the Great Lakes/Seaway system’s largest ships, the 1,000-footers operated by the U.S. domestic fleet. With $191 million appropriated for Great Lakes navigation System operations and maintenance for fiscal year 2019, there’s money to move forward. “This funding is a big plus for asset re.newal,” said Marie Strum, Great Lakes navigation Team Lead, noting that increas.es in funding have been trending since 2014 when the Great Lakes waterways were recognized as a single region and standards for funding were set in the Water resources reform Development act. Of the $191 million appropriated, key projects for the year include $46 million being invested in dredging 25 projects, $15 million in dredged material manage.ment, $51 million in navigation structure repair, $17 million in Soo Locks mainte.nance, $5 million in Black rock Lock maintenance and nearly $5 million in chicago Lock maintenance. Lock construction will involve three main contracts: 1) upstream channel deep.ening, 2) upstream approach wall construc.tion and 3) lock construction. They will run consecutively with minimal overlap. In a project recommendation by corps’ area Engineer Kevin Sprague, “construc.tion of the new lock is necessary to ensure reliability at this critical node in the Great Lakes navigation System, which is essen.tial to U.S. manufacturing and national se.curity. The benefits of this project reflect a reduction in risk associated with the existing single point of failure for the na.tion’s value chain of taconite pellets, steel NEW LOCK MILESTONES October 1 May 26 December 2 October 26 November 21 January 22 August 27 2019 2020 2020 2022 2023 2025 2027 Receipt of design Notice to proceed Notice to proceed Upstream approach Upstream channel Notice to proceed Lock contract funding with the upstream with upstream wall contract deepening contract with lock contract complete channel deepening approach wall complete complete contract contract LOCKS . ARRA GREAT LAKES NAVIGATION FUNDING HISTORY . Adds and National Provisions . President’s Budget $200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 SOURCE: U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS NAV O&M and CDF Funds (in $000s) production and manufacturing.” The grand plan. construction of the lock is occurring in the Soo Locks north channel, which is currently home to the Davis and Sabin locks, which are 105 and 100 years old, respectively. The Da.vis is closed and the Sabin has been de.commissioned to accommodate the con.struction of cofferdams needed to build the new lock. In the current design, the Davis Lock will be used for construction access to the project site. The Macarthur and Poe locks will re.main operational as nearby work builds the new Poe-sized lock in an expanded footprint of the Sabin Lock. The existing north wall lock will remain, with the chamber face being renewed and new an.chors installed to improve the lock’s reli.ability and stability. SOO LOCKS FACTS • The Corps received authorization to design and construct a new Soo Lock in 1986. • There are four locks in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan— the Davis, Sabin, MacArthur and Poe. • The newest and only super lock, the Poe Lock, opened in 1969. • The Poe Lock handles about 89 percent of the total tonnage moving through the Soo Locks. • The MacArthur lock, opened in 1943, is not large enough for many of the region’s ships. • The Sabin Lock—now 100 years old— was decommissioned in 2010 and a cofferdam constructed at each end in preparation for building a new large lock. • The Davis Lock, completed more than 105 years ago, is closed. approach walls will be constructed upstream and downstream of the lock chamber and steel sheet pile cells will be constructed around existing bridges to protect the established infrastructure. The bedrock approach channels will be deepened to 29 feet. The south Sabin Lock wall will be demolished, rock exca.vation performed to widen the existing chamber and new concrete monoliths will be constructed on the south wall. The new lock will be filled and emp.tied through an In-chamber Longitudinal culvert System. The upper and lower mi.ter gates will have a height of 38.2 and 59.9 feet, respectively, above the sill. Once the new lock is open, the Poe LOCKS GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 11 Delivering More Rand Logistics, Inc. is a leading provider of marine bulk freight shipping, ship repair and logistics services throughout the Great Lakes region. Through our fleet of fourteen U.S. and Canadian flagged vessels and our team of dedicated professionals, we provide unique and comprehensive supply chain solutions to the marketplace. We take pride in our world class safety record, exemplary maritime and technical expertise, and the unmatched efficiency and flexibility of our operations. We are the only carrier that offers significant domestic port-to-port services in both Canada and the U.S. on the Great Lakes, and due to the versatile and diverse makeup of our fleet, the only carrier that can access every commercial port in the region. Contact us for more information about how Rand Logistics and our subsidiary companies can help you with your supply chain needs. Lower Lakes Towing, Ltd. Grand River Navigation Company Conneaut Creek Ship Repair 517 Main Street 1026 Hannah Avenue, Suite D 4200 Benefit Avenue Port Dover, Ontario, CA N0A 1NO Traverse City, Michigan, USA 49686 Ashtabula, Ohio, USA 44004 Phone: 519-583-0982 Phone: 231-642-4622 Phone: 440-990-3051 Rand Logistics, Inc. 333 Washington Street, Suite 201, Jersey City, New Jersey 07302 RAND Phone: 212-863-9403 LOGISTICS, INC. www.randlogisticsinc.com TECHNOLOGY One day, a ship will leave a berth in northern Europe and its transit across the atlantic Ocean, through the Seaway system and into a port will be tracked real-time. The advanced technol. ogy will allow the U.S. and canadian Sea. ways, fleets, crews, pilots, shippers, ports and terminal operators to make sound de. cisions on traffic flow and staffing as the nautical miles pass. Still in the early stages of develop. ment, the Traffic Flow Management Sys. tem (TFMS) will track vessel progress for ships using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system. “This optimized Traffic Flow Manage. ment System will make throughput of the Seaway much more efficient and much safer,” said craig Middlebrook, Deputy administrator for the Saint Lawrence Sea. way Development corporation (SLSDc). “We can better align vessels, particularly during critical moments like before the closing of the Seaway, when we have a limited amount of time and space.” The TFMS builds on automated iden.tification system (aIS) and global posi.tion system technology, which has been used in the region since 2001. The Sea.way was the first waterway in the western hemisphere to use aIS technology for op.erations. and with ships traveling the sys.tem required to carry aIS transponders, the groundwork is laid for this next level of technology. according to Jean aubry-Morin, Vice President of External relations for The St. Lawrence Seaway Management corpora.tion (SLSMc), this next generation of traf.fic management system can be considered on the same level as 5G is to the new com.munications network for cell phones. “It is a major step forward and of the same magnitude as aIS and hands-Free Mooring were in their time,” he said. “We are now talking about moving from track.ing to voyage management where you are looking into the future of traffic activities.” “Timing is everything,” Middlebrook said. “We’re in a time of technological Still in the early stages of development, the Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) will track vessel progress for ships using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway system. TECHNOLOGY SHIPPING TODAY big-data transformation. It has become apparent to us over the last three years that several of our key stakehold.ers are optimizing their fleets, their scheduling and flow. The Seaway is in the business of traffic flow, so if our users are optimizing scheduling, there’s a synergy with this new technology.” Increases in efficiency and safety are expected to positively influence business development for a system with more than 50 percent increased capacity. Building the future. currently, infor.mation provided for traffic management is static. aIS transponders periodically update data for system “traffic control.lers” on a ship’s location, heading, speed, current and weather. calculations are made for estimated times of arrival (ETa) to schedule traffic. The U.S. and canadian Seaways use that data to schedule ships through the system. The aIS “snapshots” are critical for bottleneck areas, like narrow channels and locks. The information is communi.cated by telephone. The new system will collect real-time operational data from vessels using exist.ing aIS transceivers, using an artificial intelligence algorithm to calculate ETas The new system, conceptually, is ROUTE BASED the same as what’s ON HUMAN MANUAL EXPERIENCE OPERATIONS being used in the aviation industry. SHORT TERM PLANNING THE FUTURE OF SHIPPING Berthing slot and Weather congestionfromVTS forecasts Situational SMART ROUTING AND awareness VOYAGE PLANNING MONITORING HYBRID Digital Twin SHIP Simulators Multiple sourcesof energy REAL-TIME VISIBILITY OF Vessel route and position SHIP ETA (navigation system /AIS) AND ETD from each vessel’s current position to var.ious waypoints along their planned routes. It will aid in day-to-day decisions for key stakeholders by providing more predictability, optimizing transits and improving business performance. “The proposed application is intended to improve overall safety and efficiency of the Seaway, reduce operation costs of ves.sels and Seaway infrastructure and yield concurrent efficiencies to the region’s heavily-traveled road and rail network,” the report states. TFMS could make time a commodity. The Seaways would have access to a data flow that would break down the supply and demand of how many ships need to move and how to best schedule those movements. The new system, conceptually, is the same as what’s being used in the aviation industry. however, the three-dimensional COLLISION AVOIDANCE AND AUTO DOCKING technology used by air traffic controllers only needs to be two dimensional for Sea.way use. “We’re more linear, though the idea is to develop an interface using real-time data to give the Seaway, stakeholders and service providers the ability to optimize traffic flow,” Middlebrook said. “The dynamic system would be able to continually adjust traffic.” The technology will show vessel oper.ators what’s happening ahead of them as it occurs. The captain may opt to slow speed to provide fuel savings and arrive in time to travel through what had previously been a backlogged area, for example, limiting time at anchor. If a pilot isn’t yet available, the ship could ease speed for a more timely arrival. If there’s an early clearing at the dock, the crew will make slight adjustments for an earlier arrival. Real-time situational awareness will create opportunities for more informed decision-making, improving safety and operations. real-time situational awareness will create opportunities for more informed decision-making, improving safety and operations. Environmental protection. recent years have seen an in.crease in focus on vessel traffic safety in European Union mem.ber states. The Swedish Maritime administration is now using a digital Vessel Traffic System (VTS). Use of the systems has broadened based on results in environmental protection. a trend among some VTS authorities is to include port security and offshore surveillance. Master Mariner Fredrik Karlsson, Swedish Maritime ad.ministration coordinator Innovation & Development, said one of the main challenges in vessel management is being able to predict the future. There are nine VTS areas in Sweden. “One way of predicting the future is to have a common un.derstanding of the present,” he said, noting that sharing infor.mation is the key to best practices in managing traffic flow. The technology promotes safety and the benefits of just-in-time ar.rivals, reducing waiting and anchorage times. More than 2,500 ships operate in the Baltic Sea at any given time. They carry 950 million metric tons of cargo annually, representing 17 percent of the world’s shipping. The need to manage the traffic flow has furthered the use of digitized ship.ping systems in that region. are Piel, head of the Vessel Traffic Safety Department for the Estonian Maritime administration, said he foresees route ex.change systems as a new level in ensuring vessel traffic safety. “The prerequisite for ensuring vessel traffic safety and pro.viding vessel traffic services is to know vessels’ intentions and their exact sailing plans, and this is what data exchange servic.es do,” he said, adding that these digital systems will be even more critical with the advent and use of unmanned vessels. Initially, the TFMS technology is planned for use in the St. Lawrence Seaway, extending from Montreal to Lake Erie. The area of focus encompasses 15 locks and 18 moveable bridges. Early funding is coming from the DOT’s Intelligent Trans.portation System Joint Program Office. The program office conducts research to advance safety, mobility and environmen.tal sustainability through electronic and information-technolo.gy application for all transportation modes. Finding the right fit. The concept for the TFMS is not new. SLSDc’s 2017-18 strategic plan/performance report calls for seeking advancements in new navigation-related technologies, including Wi-Fi access for ships transiting the locks and virtual navigation aids, to more efficiently manage vessel traffic and lockages. In late 2017, the Volpe national Transportation Systems center produced a series of concept of Operations reports for the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The final in.stallment identifies opportunities for Intelligent Transporta.tion System technology. as the last Seaway system lock is equipped with hands-Free Mooring (hFM) technology, the behind-the-scenes work on the TFMS is moving to the forefront. and like hFM, Seaway opera.tors are looking at similar technologies in Europe for potential Yves Grondin’s decision to leave his job and start a new company committed to the sale, maintenance and report of turbochargers was questionable to some. he was well paid and well respected. Why rock the boat? But his dream was big, and he boldly pursued it. yves Gron.din invested in Turbo Expert Quebec, Inc. now, 23 years later, the hard work—including the first seven years without a vaca.tion—have proven productive. The turbochargers connect to marine diesel engines, acting as bellows, dramatically improving power. Other equipment and services include: • Balancer, which can handle rotors up to 1.7 meters and weighing 1,000 kilograms • Sandblasting cabinet, which uses glass beads to clean massive turbocharger parts like rotors measuring nearly four feet in diameter • Emergency response, night and day Turbo Expert Québec has become an international industry leader in the turbocharger market. The marine division includes well-known clients such as the canadian coast Guard, Société des traversiers du Québec, Fednav, cSL, Transport Desgagnés and Ocean Group. Turbo Expert offers quality control service for all turbocharg.er rebuilding to meet all manufacturing requirements. Our team of experienced specialists cares about quality and does every.thing possible to ensure our products meet all requirements. as the dream is realized, yves Grondin continues to enjoy the process, the day-to-day work. “I get a lot of satisfaction from the way the business has grown and continues to grow,” he said. . ADVERTISEMENT GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 15 TECHNOLOGY tomized technology is need.ed. While the Seaways are partnering in the early stages, other system stakeholders— the coast Guards, ports, pi.lots, cargo-handlers, carriers and more—will be needed to join in the effort. Digitized Rotterdam. Over the last decade, the Port of rotterdam has created its own vessel management sys.tem which interfaces with digital business solutions. The system, called Pronto, provides shipping compa.nies, agents, terminals and other services with a shared platform to exchange infor.mation. Users can access a single dashboard or work in their own systems and use use in the system. however, the exact fit nadian Seaway for integrating the new links to interact with the collective tool. has yet to be found. according to Monica Swanson, Port of In February, the SLSDc team traveled technology is in place. “now we are look. ing at our first step in building on the air rotterdam Business Manager Digital De-to the Volpe center in cambridge, Massa. navigation capabilities. What can we pro. velopment, the system is producing more chusetts to discuss next steps. efficient port calls. One pilot said the sys.“Volpe built the aIS system for the ca- duce in the next year to determine what the capabilities of this system could be?” tem reduces wait times for ships by up to nadian and U.S. Seaways. The system research continues on whether an 20 percent. Other benefits include: worked beautifully,” said Middlebrook, • Shipping companies: shorter port call noting that the partnership with the ca. “off-the-shelf” system will meet the tai. lored needs of the system or whether cus. turnaround times, better predictability, . TECHNOLOGY lower bunker and charter costs, lower cO2 emissions during port calls • Terminals: better predictability and terminal occupancy and shorter waiting times • Agencies: more time for client servic.es with streamlined communications and 80 percent fewer telephone calls to ask for updates • Logistical and maritime service providers: improved service through improved pre.dictability and better situational awareness • Port authority: increased predictabil.ity and cargo volume, reduced cO2 emis.sions in port by 5 percent a recently connected terminal reduced delays caused by alongside bunkering by 100 percent in the first month of using Pronto through the data exchange be.tween their terminal, the bunkering com.panies and the ETas given by the agents. Pronto combines data from the public sector, private businesses and uses artifi.cial intelligence to generate “extremely accurate” information about a port call. The port authority is now marketing the system and several other digital products internationally. “Port call efficiency is relevant to any port,” said Swanson. “Bottom line: most port calls have a lot of inefficiencies Initially, the TFMS technology is planned for use in the St. Lawrence Seaway, extending from Montreal to Lake Erie. The area of focus encompasses 15 locks and 18 moveable bridges. around them because information about what is really happening and what is planned is not shared adequately. Pronto solves this problem by showing you ex.actly where a ship is in real-time and what services and operations are planned around a vessel.” here’s how Pronto works: • as soon as an ETa is known, the vessel is assigned its own timeline. The timeline shows all the events during the port call: from the vessel’s arrival and stay in the port to its departure. • all public data retrieved directly from participating companies and fore.casts from artificial intelligence applications are combined, excluding in.formation about the cargo. • Users can filter the available data on their own dashboards and zoom in on the timeline of an individual port call. They can use this information to effi. ciently access and plan activities related to the port call. • The progress and status of the events is continuously updated on the dash.board. Users can monitor events and make adjustments where necessary. If they wish, they can receive alerts of status changes, delays or planning conflicts. Work in determining the right technol.ogy for the Great Lakes/Seaway is ongoing. “This is a fundamental rethinking of vessel traffic management in our system and there are tremendous benefits to it,” Middlebrook said, “but it is a tremendous lift to do this kind of fundamental re.thinking and then carry it out.” he added: “Thanks to our nimble.ness, size and partnership with the cana.dian Seaway and customers, we can go from a good idea to research to imple.mentation pretty quickly, certainly for a public agency.” Janenne Irene Pung . DR. BARBARA HENDRIE Co-Author Chief Economist GEORGE D. THOMAS Director DHL Global BMC Financial Group Global Director UN Environment North America Connectedness Index Smart Infrastructure Hatch, Ltd. 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Register now at GreatLakesEconomicForum.com GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 17 SOURCE: ROBERT WELTON THE 2018 SEASON SEAWAY TRAFFIC RESULTS 2017-18 (thousands of metric tons) Commodity 2017 2018 Total Transits 4,124 4,355 Grain 10,174 12,171 Dry Bulk 10,409 10,733 Iron Ore 8,227 7,371 Liquid Bulk 3,779 4,594 General Cargo 3,382 3,414 Coal 2,250 2,523 Total Cargo 38,280 40,867 SOURCE: THE ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY MANAGEMENT CORPORATION Tariffs. Strikes. cost increases. While 2018 wasn’t an easy year for busi.ness in the Great Lakes/St. Law.rence Seaway shipping industry, it was a year of progress and milestones. Total tonnage through the Seaway in 2018 increased 9 percent over the year— from 38.1 to 40.9 million metric tons. The numbers represent the highest overall tonnage moved since 2007. Grain provided much of the boost, lead.ing a late-season surge. In the fall, tonnage was up 4 percent, according said Terrance Bowles, President & cEO of The St. Law.rence Seaway Management corporation. The additional 5 percent came late in the year—the critical time for exporting grain. Overall, grain produced its best num.bers on record since the turn of the centu.ry—12.2 million metric tons in 2018. The grain movements, consisting primarily of exporting wheat, corn, soybeans, barley, oats and flaxseed, increased nearly 20 per.cent over the year. “Total tonnage on the St. Lawrence Seaway exceeded the 5-, 10- and 15-year averages, making 2018 an exceptionally strong shipping season, the best in over a decade,” said craig Middlebrook, Deputy administrator of the Saint Lawrence Sea.way Development corporation. Grain and dry bulk combined represent more than half of the Seaway’s cargo for the year, with dry bulk adding 10.7 million metric tons, up 3.1 percent from 2017. Iron ore totaled 7.4 million metric tons in 2018. While still significant, the annual haul through the Seaway was down more than 10 percent over the year. Liquid bulk movements total 4.6 mil.lion metric tons for the season, a large in.crease of 21.57 percent over 2017. General cargo saw a slight increase of nearly 1 percent over the year at 3.4 mil.lion metric tons moved. coal continues its decline as utilities move to natural gas and renewable energy for electric generation. In 2018, coal rep.resented 2.5 million metric tons, a loss of 12.1 percent over the year. Load after load, 4,355 ships transited the Seaway in 2018, an increase of 231 ves.sels from 2017. The season concluded De.cember 31 with the Cedarglen transiting the Welland canal, heading for Lake Erie. Interlake additions. The system’s larg.est ships, the U.S.-flag vessels only trading in the Great Lakes, hauled 83.7 million net tons of cargo in 2018, with iron ore repre.senting more than half of the total. The freighters specialize in hauling iron ore downbound, from the mines in Minnesota to steel mill in the Lower Lakes. Of the 45.8 million net tons, just over 4 million were transshipped for export, an indicator of the massive amount of taconite needed to feed regional steel mills. Other commodities moving on the lak.ers were bulk products mostly consisting of coal, limestone, cement, salt, sand and grain. about 11.8 million net tons of coal were moved, the bulk of which—8.7 mil.lion tons—through Lake Superior. Limestone movements totaled 22 mil.lion net tons, cement 2.93 net tons, salt and sand just under half a million net tons and grain at 259,000 net tons. (Please see the related graph on page 21.) Recognizing milestones. In addition to commodity totals, season milestones include: • completion of hands-Free Mooring GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 19 THE 2018 SEASON A DECADE OF TONNAGE TOTALS (Million MT) at the canadian locks and one U.S. lock, leaving completion at the Snell Lock • Use of remote operation at all of the Seaway’s gates, locks and bridges • Operating the longest season in his.tory, with 298 days of navigation • Breakthrough support for construct.ing a new Poe-sized lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as the Seaway system enters its 60th anniversary, stakeholders are focused on working toward achieving more of the system’s potential; it could handle more than twice the current tonnage levels. Installation of new technologies is con.tinuing to create efficiencies—making room for more business opportunities. Streamlining is being done through new 30.71 36.60 37.60 39.07 37.10 39.89 36.25 35.01 38.03 38.12 5-YEAR AVERAGE 40.87 terminals, remote operation of bridges and locks, hands-Free Mooring, dredg.ing, investments in fleets and more. “The investments in Seaway infrastruc.ture and technology are achieving greater efficiencies for our customers and en.hancing the binational waterway’s global competitiveness,” Middlebrook said. (For more on the system’s new and coming THE 2018 SEASON U.S.-FLAG MOVEMENT ON THE GREAT LAKES (net tons) Commodity 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Ave. 2014-2018 Iron Ore 45,624,207 40,864,953 44,074,832 45,988,815 45,804,433 44,471,460 Coal 17,772,489 17,654,314 12,964,877 13,332,497 11,816,332 14,708,102 Limestone 21,459,429 23,142,584 21,193,845 21,553,131 21,961,050 21,862,008 Cement 3,248,033 3,451,989 3,246,471 3,182,636 2,933,346 3,212,495 Salt 1,400,068 1,411,169 1,259,409 1,067,836 460,577 1,119,812 Sand 376,456 319,891 265,220 375,638 493,128 366,067 Grain 259,461 356,268 249,999 237,331 259,745 272,561 Totals 90,140,143 87,201,168 83,254,653 85,737,884 83,728,611 86,012,505 technologies, read the five technology sections, which appear throughout this edition.) Looking to 2019. With a season of strong tonnage behind, the U.S. and ca.nadian Seaways are focused on the new season at hand. Total shipments of 42 mil.lion metric tons are forecast for 2019, ac.cording to Bowles. Grain is expected to contribute well, again. Shipments of grain began the season, as remnant exports were moved as soon as the waters were cleared for sailing in the spring. as china moves toward using better quality steel, it’s seeking the pellets which are well known and ready for export. The local steel industry is strong, as well, with cleve.land-cliffs, Inc. continuing construction of SOURCE: LAKE CARRIERS’ ASSOCIATION its advanced hBI plant in Toledo, Ohio. So, after a season of steady sailings, loadings and unloadings, many of the ves.sels which supported trade in more than 50 countries in 2018 are again moving raw materials, breakbulk and oversized cargo wherever they need to go—keeping cargo moving for yet another season in the Great Lakes/Seaway. Janenne Irene Pung . for membership inf www.greatlakesports.org GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 21 SEA THE WORLD OUR WAY www.fednav.com THE 2018 SEASON Milwaukee Ports and terminal operators make improvements and assess political impacts on annual tonnage Information as provided by the individual ports. The 2018 season saw tariffs, political threats and infrastructure investments. regardless of the un.certainties, Great Lakes/Seaway ports and terminal operators stayed focused on what they do best—moving cargo, creating positive economic impacts in their regions and modernizing their facilities and equipment. results from the 2018 season follow. Bécancour and Port of Belledune BECANCOUR METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 2,100,000 2,314,851 2017 na na 5-year ave. na na BELLEDUNE METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 2,944,857 3,246,145 2017 2,439,611 2,689,208 5-year ave. 2,219,573 2,446,658 The year-round St. Lawrence river port of Bé.cancour handled 2.1 million metric tons of cargo in 2018, while new Brunswick’s Port of Belle-dune celebrated its 50th anniversary by breaking the record for tonnage through the port in a sin.gle year. The 2.94 million metric ton total smashed the previous record set in 2009 by more than 300,000 metric tons, and represented a nearly 21 percent jump from 2017 totals. “We believe it goes to show that even though our port is located in a small region, the possi.bilities for business opportunities are bound.less,” said Denis caron, President & cEO of the Belledune Port authority. “With creative minds, adaptability and hard work from valued em.ployees and partners, we can continue to build on our connection to the world.” The port handles 24 different cargoes, in.cluding armour stone, bauxite, coal, gypsum, lead concentrate, metallurgical coke, salt, sand and wood products. Infrastructure upgrades planned for 2019 include construction of addi.tional laydown areas. Port of Cleveland METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 3,400,000 3,747,854 2017 3,600,000 3,968,316 5-year ave. na na Total tonnage was 3.4 million metric tons at the Port of cleveland, down nearly 6 percent from 3.6 million metric tons in 2017. Primary cargoes through the port include containers, steel products, bulk, heavy machinery and cap.ital equipment. Logistec USa, Inc. will serve as exclusive ter.minal operator at cleveland’s General cargo Terminal under a new one-year agreement for the 2019 navigation season. The company will handle all cargoes through the terminal, includ.ing bulk commodities, such as iron ore and stone, as well as containers and breakbulk/ project cargo. THE 2018 SEASON DETROIT 9262+ Primary Cargoes . Steel . Bulk Products . Aluminum DULUTH-SUPERIOR 6010+31+26 Primary Cargoes . Iron Ore . Limestone . Grain . Other 58 ERIE 34+242+Primary Cargoes . Stone . Salt . Project Cargo . Sand . Other GREEN BAY 28+22+17+20121 Primary Cargoes . Limestone . Petroleum Products . Coal . Cement . Salt . Other Port of Detroit METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 426,405 470,030 2017 511,528 563,862 5-year ave. 447,826 493,643 The season started strong at the Port of De.troit, but slowed as tariffs on steel and alumi.num were imposed. Fourth quarter totals re.bounded, but the season ended down more than 16.5 percent from 2017—almost 5 per.cent off the five-year average. “Tonnages were shifted to canadian ports in the Great Lakes after the trade tariffs were initi.ated,” said Kyle Burleson, Executive Director at the Detroit/Wayne county Port authority. Steel made up nearly 92 percent of the port’s cargo for the season. Other commodities in.cluded bulk products at 6.5 percent and alumi.num at 1.8 percent. Port of Duluth-Superior METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 32,583,173 35,916,757 2017 31,979,881 32,251,743 5-year ave. 31,150,563 34,337,577 The Port of Duluth-Superior handled 32.6 million metric tons of cargo in 2018, the port’s highest mark since 2014. Iron ore tonnage to.taled 19.5 million metric tons—the most shipped in a single season since 1995. “Shipments of Minnesota iron ore accounted for the lion’s share of tonnage moved through the Port of Duluth-Superior,” said Deb DeLuca, Duluth Seaway Port authority Executive Direc.tor. “Iron ore cargoes were up 9 percent year-over-year, outpacing the five-year average by 30-plus percent.” Favorable ice conditions in January helped push iron ore totals, as the last 1,000-footer left Duluth-Superior with pellets just two days be.fore the Soo Locks closed January 15. Grain exports also posted a 23 percent year-over-year increase, and the port recorded its first shipment of bulk soybeans to Europe in nearly 11 years. at 9.2 million metric tons, coal was down 11 percent from the previous year. Work on a $3 million intermodal container terminal expansion project continued in 2018. The port authority also debuted a new automat.ic equipment identification system for reading railcars and embarked on a $2.2 million indus.trial building expansion to accommodate con.tinued growth. The Duluth Seaway Port authority, along with numerous agencies around Lake Superior, is working to expand passenger cruising at the port, and these collaborative efforts continue in 2019, according to DeLuca. Looking ahead at cargo totals for 2019, De-Luca is optimistic about Duluth’s prospects. “By all accounts, the manufacturing and steel-making sectors are still looking strong,” she said. “all six taconite facilities on Minnesota’s Iron range are operating at full capacity; iron ore ap.pears to be strong again in 2019, which bodes well for the coming season to open on an upbeat note with shipments of iron ore and limestone leading the way. We also hope that the strong pace of grain exports continues well into 2019.” Port of Erie METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 656,483 723,648 2017 616,340 679,398 5-year ave. 587,413 647,511 Traffic at the Port of Erie was up 6.5 percent in 2018. Stone led the way at 382,130 metric tons, making up 58 percent of total tonnage, and salt followed at 34 percent. International cargo was at record levels, and project cargo was up, continuing the trend seen over the last several seasons. The Erie-Western Pennsylvania Port author.ity will receive $2.7 million in new state invest.ments for multiple projects, including $1.6 mil.lion for the reconstruction of the northern seawall on East Dobbins Landing, $350,000 to.ward a new mobile crane and $90,000 for a road salt pad expansion at the terminal. Port of Green Bay METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 2,087,391 2,300,952 2017 1,832,769 2,020,280 5-year ave. na na The Port of Green Bay broke a five-year re.cord with strong tonnage in 2018, moving more than 2 million metric tons of cargo—a 14 percent increase over 2017. “We’re very pleased to see the high totals for the 2018 shipping season,” said Dean haen, Di.rector, Brown county Port & resource recov.ery. “Two million tons is typically our goal for a shipping season, and this year’s strong economy in northeast Wisconsin made that achievable.” Petroleum products were the primary cargo at 55 percent of the total, up from 11 percent in 2017. Foreign imports of petroleum products surged by 528 percent, while domestic exports were up 151 percent. “Growth in petroleum product move.ment continues to be exceptional year after year,” haen said. “Much of the growth can be attributed to the closure of a petroleum pipeline serving northeast Wisconsin.” Domestic and foreign salt imports were down by 84 and 17 percent, respectively. Foreign imports of limestone increased by 230 percent, while domestic limestone exports decreased 64 percent. coal ship.ments, which accounted for 22 percent of 2017 tonnage, made up just 2 percent of the total in 2018. Vessel calls on the port were up 8 per.cent in 2018 at 180, representing an al.most 8 percent increase over the previous season. Port of Hamilton METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 11,628,319 12,818,012 2017 9,870,211 10,880,032 5-year ave. na na More than 11.6 million metric tons of cargo passed through the Port of hamil.ton in 2018, the highest volume in more than a decade and an 18 percent increase over 2017 totals. Iron ore made up 32 percent of the total at 3.7 million metric tons, while grain/oil seeds, liquid bulk and finished steel contributed 15, 6 and 5 percent, respectively. a total of 647 vessels called on the port during the course of the season—43 more than in 2017—with more ships traveling to and from points overseas. “This season really shows how canada HAMILTON 3215+4265+ Primary Cargoes . Iron Ore . Grain/Oil Seeds . Liquid Bulk . Finished Steel . Other THE 2018 SEASON INDIANA.BURNS HARBOR 42+17825126+ Primary Cargoes . Steel Products . Limestone . Steel Slag . Various Dry Bulk . Fertilizer . Liquid Cargoes . Grain . Other JOHNSTOWN 58401+ Primary Cargoes . Grain . Salt . Calcium Chloride . Project Cargo MILWAUKEE 331776++10++27 Primary Cargoes . Salt . Dry Bulk . Grain . Steel . Liquid Bulk . Other can diversify and develop new markets if it has the right infrastructure in place,” said hamilton Port authority (hPa) President & cEO Ian hamilton. “In 2018, exports through the Port of hamilton were up by 63.6 percent over 2017.” Behind this trend were increased exports of Ontario-grown grain, new terminal capacity at the port, a solid crop year and expanded Europe.an market access as a result of the canada-Euro.pean Union comprehensive Economic and Trade agreement, which eliminated tariffs on 98 percent of products the EU trades with canada. a c$17.7 million federal investment in the port—made through the national Trade corri.dor Fund and matched by hPa—was an.nounced in 2018. The c$35.45 million invest.ment will provide new and upgraded transportation and port infrastructure, to be completed by December 2020. “This project is important because the Port of hamilton is virtually out of room to grow, yet has unmet demand from users who want to in.vest in trade-oriented business in Ontario,” hamilton said. “In the past decade, we’ve attracted more than c$300 million in private sector invest.ment to hamilton, and we have grown our on-port employment to more than 2,100 jobs,” he added. “We’re focused on using this latest in.vestment to continue our positive impact on the regional economy.” Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 2,485,712 2,740,025 2017 2,558,287 2,820,025 5-year ave. 2,570,988 2,834,026 The Port of Indiana-Burns harbor handled 2.49 million metric tons in 2018, down from 2.6 million in 2017. Primary cargoes through the port included steel products, steel slag, limestone and fertilizer. Limestone was down, however, as the local utility transitioned from coal-fired facilities and required less limestone for scrubbers. Tariffs created volatility in tradi.tional steel trade lanes in Indiana, as well. “2018 was an up and down year,” said Ian hirt, Port Director for Indiana-Burns harbor. “Some facilities were helped by tariffs while others were negatively impacted. By the end of the year, our volumes were down 3 percent and, considering some concerns when the Sec.tion 232 tariffs were announced, we’ll take it.” In 2018, fiber optic cable was installed throughout the port, and in 2019 construction begins on $19.85 million in dock improve.ments, rail infrastructure, a bulk-handling facil.ity and a truck marshaling yard. “Steel prices have started to wobble and the role of tariffs is so important that making accu.rate predictions is a challenge,” hirt said. “If steel demand can remain strong, my expecta.tion is that our tonnages will follow suit and we will have another strong year.” Port of Johnstown METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 1,284,692 1,406,129 2017 1,209,404 1,333,138 5-year ave. 1,264,028 1,393,351 Tonnage at the Port of Johnstown was the second-highest on record at 1.28 million metric tons, up more than 6 percent over 2017. Grain through the port represents nearly 58 percent of total tonnage—the most grain ever received in a single year. Salt accounted for almost 41 percent, while calcium chloride and project car.go contributed about 2 percent. Plans at the port for 2019-20 include c$10 million for infrastructure and additional storage to accommodate soybean exports. according to robert Dalley, General Manager, the investment is part of an effort to increase canadian/foreign soybean trade. Port Milwaukee METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 2,393,899 2,638,819 2017 2,570,000 2,832,937 5-year ave. na na Port Milwaukee’s 2.4 million metric tons of cargo in 2018 was down nearly 7 percent from the previous year. however, the port saw a 30 percent increase in international tonnage, with inbound steel and outbound grain holding at or near 2017 levels, even as new tariffs were rolled out. GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 27 Salt was strong, at 32.5 percent of total tonnage, while dry bulk, grain and steel added 16, 10 and 7 percent, respectively. The port also increased liquid bulk traffic to more than 6 percent the port’s total by utilizing the refurbished Liquid cargo Pier to handle ethanol shipments. In 2017, a $1.7 million upgrade of the port’s 15 railroad crossings commenced and continues in 2019, along with new work to upgrade the intermodal rail yard through a $3 million Wisconsin Depart.ment of Transportation grant. Port Director adam Schlicht is cau.tiously optimistic about Milwaukee seeing stable inbound volumes in the steel and breakbulk sectors in 2019; however, he ex.pressed concern about agricultural exports due to the ongoing affects of EU tariffs. “With respect to laker traffic, salt vol.umes should rebound and the liquid bulk sector will continue to grow as utilization of the port’s Liquid cargo Pier increases,” Schlicht said. “In 2019 and beyond, the port is focused on growth by expanding its agricultural export footprint, full utili.zation of its liquid bulk pier capability, re.establishment of intermodal service and expansion of its water-to-rail service area farther inland.” Port of Monroe METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 914,765 1,008,355 2017 1,782,480 1,964,846 5-year ave. 1,984,094 2,187,087 The Port of Monroe handled 914,765 metric tons of cargo in 2018, down almost 49 percent from 2017 and 54 percent off the five-year average. coal was the leader at 518,732 metric tons, accounting for 57 percent of all cargo moving through the port, but its overall decline negatively im.pacted total tonnage. Limestone repre.sented 160,423 metric tons, or 20 percent of the port’s tonnage, while liquid asphalt, synthetic gypsum and steel coils brought in 12, 5 and 2 percent, respectively. Monroe’s new $3.6 million intermodal riverfront Dock opened in 2018—Huron Spirit delivered the first cargo, steel coils, to the dock in april. The port also wel.comed the Dutch-flag liquid asphalt tank.er M/V Iver Bright, making her maiden Great Lakes delivery late in the season. “The 2018 shipping season was filled with new challenges, but rewarding incre.mental growth,” said Paul LaMarre III, Di.rector of the Port of Monroe. “Overall ton.nage was down, primarily due to the ever-evolving coal trade in which rock-bottom rail rates continue to test the ma.rine market.” Ongoing service restrictions imposed by U.S. customs and Border Protection and tariffs took a toll on tonnage as well. “The port efficiently handled its first steel coil shipments, which consisted of three trips from Stelco in nanticoke, On.tario aboard McKeil Marine barges,” La-Marre said. “Unfortunately, this long.term business was compromised nearly overnight as new tariffs were imposed on canadian steel.” also in 2018, the Port of Monroe formed a partnership with Great Lakes Towing co. to create the Great Lakes Shipyard, Monroe. Great Lakes Towing co. has permanently positioned the tug Wisconsin at the port to provide ship assist and icebreaking services. LaMarre said he expects increased in.ternational shipments in 2019. “Because coal cargoes continue to di.minish, the port will likely not see any re.cord tonnage numbers,” he said. “howev.er, the future of our industry lies within our sustainability. We will undoubtedly continue to expand on our partnership with Spliethoff Lines to develop more in.ternational cargo while, at the same time, continuing to handle as much bulk cargo as the regional market will bear.” Port of Montreal METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 38,925,026 42,907,445 2017 38,041,530 41,933,559 5-year ave. 35,000,000 38,580,850 It was the fifth consecutive record year for the Port of Montreal, which moved 39 million metric tons of cargo for the sea.son. The port’s five container terminals handled 1.62 million TEUs in 2018, an.other record for Montreal. “While this growth can still be attributed to the asian market, which rose 4.2 per.cent, Europe rose 3 percent—including all types of cargo—suggesting positive impacts from cETa,” said Sylvie Vachon, President and cEO of the Montreal Port authority. “The 15 percent growth in africa, 8 percent growth in Latin america and 1.6 percent growth in the Middle East also contributed to our growth in this sector in 2018.” “The significant growth of the con.tainer market has confirmed the impor.tance of continuing to advance our large DOCK BESIDE A THIRD OF THE CANADIAN MARKET A major inland port just minutes from the downtown core, the Port of Toronto provides quick, reliable access to 33 percent of the Canadian market. With more than 200,000 square feet of warehousing space and over 20 acres of paved marshalling area, the Port of Toronto is your connection to Southern Ontario and the world. GrEaT LaKES/SEaWay rEVIEW January-March, 2019 29 container terminal project in contrecoeur,” she added. Liquid bulk accounted for 14.4 million metric tons, while dry bulk contributed another 9.5 million. The port also had a record year in pas.senger cruise traffic. nearly 127,000 pas.sengers and crew converged in the city, a bump of 11 percent over 2017. “We also opened the Port of Montreal’s Grand Quay to the general public with a beautiful public holiday,” Vachon said. “Montrealers can now enjoy this excep.tional site for its unseen views of the city and its proximity to the river.” Port of Oshawa METRIC TONS SHORT TONS 2018 508,211 560,206 2017 408,567 450,367 5-year ave. 404,914 446,341 The Port of Oshawa reported 508,211 metric tons of cargo for

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